Construction and calculation of the foundation slab. When construction is at the stage of building a house, the greatest load goes to the base, i.e. foundation. So that the base can withstand the structure, does not crack and sag, pay special attention to it.
Yes, you cannot save money during construction, especially when choosing a foundation slab.
This is the material from which a wonderful, uncomplicated and strong supporting structure comes out.
Reinforced concrete foundation slabs for a strip-type foundation have a rectangular shape. For this product, heavy concrete (marked with T), expanded clay concrete (marked with P), and sometimes silicate concrete (marked with C) are used. Usually used for laying basements, basements and foundations.
Manufactured in production in strict compliance with GOST standards. Concrete blocks differ in their characteristics and scope:
The holes in them are in the form of truncated pyramids or simply uniform.
On the planes of the end view, there are special grooves that connect the plates to each other. To make it more convenient to work, two loops are placed on the plates.
The slabs themselves differ among themselves in the form of the presence / absence of voids, as well as in size and weight. FBS slabs are 90 cm, 120 cm, 240 cm long, 30 cm, 40 cm and 50 cm wide, and from 30 to 60 cm in height.
Purpose, material and the dimensions of the foundation slab are encoded in the marking. If you saw the marking FBS 12. 4.
6, then this means that this block is intended for the construction of walls made of heavy concrete, with dimensions of 1.2 m in length, 0.4 m in width and 0.6 m in height.
Wall foundation blocks (solid) are an iron structure, which is similar in shape to a parallelepiped.
Such blocks make them solid concrete of high quality, there is reinforcement with steel reinforcement, which makes it possible to withstand heavy loads. According to the characteristics, the FBS does not lose to monolithic bases. The area of application is wide, since it can be used in the construction of high-rise buildings, make ceilings and partitions.
Often used in the construction of industrial buildings and protective shields on construction sites. Some characteristics are given below:
FBS also have different sizes, this indicator is also classified. The size depends on the level of load that the plate can withstand. And for good reason - the main purpose of foundation slabs is to evenly distribute the load on the base surface. For this reason, dimensions should be matched to the expected load.
Please note, h that occasionally there is an error in weight and size. As a rule, the size error is not more than 2 cm.
An important characteristic is the mass of the slab. FBS is a solid structure without voids, which affects the weight. First of all, these are difficulties during transportation. Depending on the brand, the slabs can be from 250 kg to 2 tons in weight.
In the manufacture of this building material, components such as water, cement and filler are used.
The consistency is maintained, and to connect the elements, they are kneaded in a concrete mixer. After receiving a homogeneous mass, it is poured into molds with vibrators that shake the solution and compact it. Plates are removed after a day and a protective coating is applied to them, after which they are well washed with water. The material can be applied after 28 days.
Attention! If you will be installing a foundation of reinforced concrete slabs, take care of waterproofing that will protect them from moisture.
It can be a composite mixture of water repellents and bitumen.
Hollow foundation blocks are a very strong concrete material. It is widely used in the construction field. Usually builders use it when laying the foundation of industrial premises, for the construction of basements and basements.
The FBP has a rectangular shape with some voids on the bottom of the slab.
The presence of voids is necessary so that in the future they can be filled with insulation or filled with concrete and made a monolithic structure. FBP is often used for foundations in industrial premises.
With their help, it is possible to mount a protective casing when laying pipes for water supply and heating systems. They are often used in road construction, namely to create fences. Recently, it has also been used in the construction of walls in unheated rooms.
Universal perforated blocks - quite an interesting material for the construction of premises underground. This is practical when you plan to make high ceilings in the building. It makes sense to use them in the event that you will be laying the foundation in a place where there will be a large load.
Construction of UDB - foundation reinforced concrete slabs that have a certain number of holes.During installation, they are laid so that the holes coincide with each other.
Due to this, channels are obtained, which can later be reinforced and poured with high-strength concrete. This is necessary so that the structure is very strong and has a high level of wear resistance.
Note that h quite often, to save money, not all channels are poured with concrete, but this process is mandatory for corner and some more channels that are evenly spaced around the perimeter.
Foundation pillows are used when installing a tape-type foundation. It is a trapezoidal concrete base slab.
The inside of the slab is reinforced with a steel frame.
It is designed to distribute the load on the base, thereby increasing the support area. In the production of FL, the rules must be adhered to, under which the strength of the material will be guaranteed, and the plate itself will be resistant to corrosion and the appearance of cracks. Usually, heavy concrete is used in the manufacture of FL, as well as steel reinforcement and a reinforcing frame made of rods.
But now pillows began to appear often, or rather foundation slabs reinforced with string-concrete rods.
There are two types of foundation pillows - ribbed and lattice. New technologies make it possible to spend less metal and concrete in such production, which does not adversely affect the properties. Usually used in the construction of buildings that have a heavy load. Also relevant for the construction of basement and basement floors.
"These slabs can be used for laying on any kind of soil.
They will suit any climate conditions. Such cushions are resistant to seismic changes"
Before starting the installation of the structure, prepare everything in advance. We have prepared for you a list of all the materials and tools you need:
Plates should be installed only in warm and dry weather.
No need to lay slabs on wet ground.
So, first of all, on the site we draw levels and axes. Next, you should prepare the site and proceed to the preparation of the sand cushion. To do this, you will need to sift the sand and pour it on the bottom of the trench with a layer of 6-11 cm. The width of the pillow should be 20 cm wider than the future foundation.
After falling asleep, we compact the sand well, pour it with water and leave it to dry. Under the foundation of a columnar type, a pillow must be made of sand and gravel, and on top we pour it all with bitumen.
Important: Do not make a pillow on wet ground. This layer needs to be removed. If the soil is sandy, you can not make a pillow, but immediately lay the blocks on the ground.
After the sand cushion is ready, you need to move on to the transfer of axes and other design marks. The mooring cord is pulled so that it does not further touch the side walls of the blocks. Let's start assembling the foundation slabs, which will be lighthouses. They are placed in the corners and when crossing walls.
The results of work depend on the correctness and accuracy of placement.
After the beacons are affixed, the mooring cord is rearranged so that it touches the edges of the side beacons. This will be the guideline for placing the remaining slabs. The deviation from the dimensions according to the plan can be up to 1 cm. To eliminate the deviation, use a crowbar with which you can move the blocks. After the first row is ready, you can proceed to the second, doing everything by analogy.
Before starting the installation of foundation slabs, consider the location of all communications, and in the places where they are installed, make gaps between the blocks.
Such a foundation has many advantages when compared with monolithic blocks:
Despite this, there are a number of disadvantages:
To do this, you will need styrofoam and a lot of money.
Generally speaking, the foundation slabs were able to prove themselves well, but still, when choosing a material, pay attention to quality ... So you can be sure of the success of the construction!
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