Today, the problems of energy efficiency in housing in Russia are the most urgent. And it concerns not only the increased cost of electricity, but also the deterioration of the environmental situation caused by the greenhouse effect. About an energy-efficient residential building for the first time
began to think in Europe. And first of all, Western experts were interested in the issue of reducing prices for energy saving and heating. As a result, special building standards were developed, modern classifications of buildings and structures were introduced in accordance with their level of energy consumption.
Typically, most of the electricity is consumed to heat the living space. In addition, a significant portion of resources are spent on lighting, household appliances, heating water and cooking food.
Western countries spend about 57% of their total electricity on heating, while in Russia this figure is 72%.
Building energy-efficient houses with your own hands will be only 15% more expensive than building an ordinary house, while it will be able to justify itself within a couple of months from the beginning of use. The efficiency of using such a house will increase not only due to changes in special building standards, but also due to the revision of certain principles of electricity consumption, for example, the use of LED lamps and LCD TVs.
Buildings and structures, which are built according to the standards and norms of energy efficiency technology, save up to 70% of the total utility bills.
This saves a lot of energy and money. And the general indicators of temperature, humidity and microclimate are much higher than generally accepted, and can be easily regulated by the owner of the house.
Below is the Russian classification of buildings and structures in terms of heat consumption and energy efficiency:
The harsh climate in some regions of Russia requires more substantial costs for heating and heating residential premises.
Although, the accepted norms and standards should not always be considered satisfied.
It is necessary to apply new technologies, non-standard solutions, high-quality materials for building a house with low electrical consumption. And the opportunities currently exist for this.
Today the idea of a passive house called the most progressive.
Its essence is to create a house from an expensive object that will not depend on external resources, and will be able to generate electricity on its own and at the same time be environmentally friendly.
Currently, this idea is not fully implemented.
The supply of the required amount of energy to a passive house is due to renewable natural resources, such as sunlight, energy from the earth and wind. You can also use the natural heat generated by people and household appliances in the house as a source of energy. Heat loss can be minimized through building design, better thermal insulation, energy-saving methods, and effective ventilation.
Reduced energy consumption in passive houses is achieved by high-quality thermal insulation of window and door openings, wall joints and the absence of cold bridges.
The main objective of an energy efficient home is to reduce energy costs, especially during the winter months.
The main principles of building a house are:
Most of the Russian buildings of the same type have natural ventilation, which is ineffective and leads to large heat losses. And in summer, this technology does not work at all, as in other things, and in the winter season, when constant ventilation of the premises is necessary. Installing a special air recuperator will allow you to use the already heated air for heating the incoming air.
The recovery system provides up to 90% of the heat due to air heating.
It is worth noting that the construction of a large house will lead to great heat loss.
It is worth focusing on the area for real living and their use. Because heating unused rooms and rooms is simply unacceptable. The construction of a house must be calculated for the exact number of people living in it.
And the remaining rooms in the house will be heated by natural human heat and the work of household appliances.
An energy efficient home is usually built taking into account all climatic conditions and their use. Sunny or windy days should be a hint for you to choose specific energy sources. And it is important to achieve tightness not only through window and door openings, but also through the use of special double-sided plaster for walls and roofs, reliable and high-quality vapor barrier and wind protection. It should also be remembered that the larger the glazing area, the greater the heat loss.
When choosing a specific place to build a house, it is necessary to take into account the natural landscape.The selected terrain must be level and without elevation differences. In general, any feature of the landscape can be used to increase efficiency. For example, a drop in height will provide a low cost water supply.
The position of the house in relation to the sun should also be taken into account in order to use solar lighting instead of electric.
High-quality thermal insulation and sound insulation must be provided from the very beginning of construction. Because energy efficiency is impossible without this type of insulation.
The canopy, roof and slope of the porch should be of optimal width so as not to create shade in natural light, and at the same time protect the building from overheating and protect the walls from rain. The roof must be designed taking into account the mass of snow cover in winter. You also need to organize the correct gutters and roof insulation.
All these measures will reduce maintenance costs and increase the life of the home.
Increasing the energy efficiency of an already built house is quite realistic. However, the return of the house must also be considered. If the house is in good condition and cannot be demolished in a few years, then it is quite possible to reconstruct it.
It is possible to reduce energy losses using modern materials and technologies.
The first thing to start with is detecting heat leaks. Cold bridges take away a significant part of the heat of the whole house. Therefore, it is very important to find such places in the tightness of walls, roofs, window and doorways.
Most often, problem areas can be found in the place where the balcony, basement and other structures are removed. Be sure to insulate the attic and floors in the basement and cellar.
In an apartment building, vestibule doors bring a significant effect.
The presence of mold and mildew on the walls also indicates a depressurization of the room. Old or improperly installed windows significantly reduce the level of heat in rooms. Sometimes just replacing them reduces heating costs several times.
Balcony glazing will allow you to save up to 15% of heat.
Another best option would be to replace the glasses with reflective ones.
It should also be noted that all insulating material must be clean and environmentally friendly for human life. An excellent option would be to use warm plaster to further seal the insulation of all walls. This building material copes well with depressurized seams and various joints. Polyethylene can be used as an insulation material, mounting it under a wooden sheathing.
And the thickness of this material must be at least 200 microns.
Nowadays, such houses are gaining more and more popularity in Russia and Belarus, since they need less heating costs and are well ventilated. We wish you to build the best economical and high-quality house!
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