The Gothic style in architecture is the most majestic and monumental. It is the only one of all building design trends that has an iconic, religious flavor. It was mainly used in the construction of Catholic churches, cathedrals, and churches. Therefore, the Gothic style gained popularity in those countries where this religion dominates.
Gothic style in architecture
Gothic style, cathedral
Gothic cannot be imitated using facing materials and finishing works.
This direction of architecture is expressed in the very design of buildings, giving them a graceful and at the same time majestic look. They all have one feature: they look much smaller on the outside than on the inside.
French gothique, German gotisch, Italian gotico derived from Latin gotthus and Greek gothos (chapel pictured)
The basis of such buildings - a frame consisting of special "ribs" - ribs, buttresses, flying buttresses. These are the main structural elements, the use of which helps to reduce the load on the walls and distribute it correctly. This made it possible to build the widest possible window openings and high vaults, to use stained glass windows in the design of buildings.
Thanks to the strong frame, it was possible to significantly reduce the weight of the buildings and increase their area and height.
Characteristic features of the Gothic style
The construction of a Gothic temple, a system of ribs, buttresses and flying buttresses
Gothic architectural compositions cannot be confused with ensembles of other styles. Gothic has only its inherent features: special expression and dynamics, expressiveness of decorative elements. Buildings built in this style are true works of art, heritage of the culture of the Middle Ages.
The characteristic features of Gothic architecture are peaked domes and stele soaring upward, high vaults, wide pointed arches, massive columns.
The huge interior spaces of cathedrals and temples are designed to emphasize the insignificance of man before God. The carefully thought-out construction of the frame of the buildings made it possible to achieve high-quality sound effects that ensure the audibility of the shepherd's voice in the most remote corners of the temple.
Gothic building style
Ribs of the vault in the Church of San Francisco in Assisi
One of the main elements of Gothic buildings is the vault. It consists of special details of the frame - ribs, which means "vein" or "rib". The first was invented the cross vault, which later became the main element of buildings in the Gothic style.
In addition to it, there are other types of vaults:
Each of them is the basis of a dome or arch, is a supporting structure for walls and roofs. As the architectural style developed, the vaults began to include not only massive ribs, but also thinner and more graceful lintels - tierserons and lierns. These are auxiliary elements, the presence of which allows the formation of curved structures.
Arch with suspension
Star vault - photo
Sculptural compositions are an invariable attribute of Gothic.
These are integral elements of the design of any Catholic cathedral or temple. The sculptures are designed to convey spirituality to the space and give it a special, religious meaning. The Gothic style is characterized by the decoration of buildings with sculptures of prophets, angels, saints. Often, the compositions of the figures convey the meaning of religious tests and instructions. In any temple there are sculptures of the Virgin Mary and Christ.
Each element of building decoration is designed to influence the soul and mind of an ordinary person, to evoke an emotional response and a sense of admiration for the greatness of God.
Sculpture of Cologne Cathedral
Chimeras of Notre Dame
Early Gothic (early-mid-12th century) has simpler and more concise features. These buildings are characterized by wide portals to enter the building, which were closed with massive doors. Since the 13th century, the frame style was used in the construction of Gothic buildings. From the beginning of the XIV century, the facades of cathedrals began to be decorated with stucco and sculptural compositions.
Moreover, the design elements conceived were located along the entire height of the walls.
Cathedrals and temples were often rebuilt, so in one building you can see features of different directions and stages of development of the Gothic. Starting from the 16th century, this style of architecture gradually began to lose its former significance, as the Baroque and Renaissance began to enter the fore.
Gothic cathedral sculptures
It is believed that gargoyles served as a symbol of the protection of the temple, scaring away sinners
In addition to sculptures and stucco moldings, decorative elements such as openwork tents and portals. Inside the buildings there are majestic columns that are the supporting elements of the structure.
The upper parts of the adjacent columns form a kind of tents or vaults, decorated with various bas-reliefs.
The most important attribute of the Gothic style is colored stained glass windows. These elements of decoration of Catholic cathedrals and temples are distinguished by bright saturated colors, contrasting with the often dark color of the walls. Each stained glass window is a work of art, the result of many years of work by artists and glass specialists.
The key point of Gothic architecture is light, the ever-pouring Divine light - a symbol of enlightenment and wisdom
Stained glass, inside view of Notre Dame Cathedral
Gothic chapel of the 15th-16th centuries with beautiful stained-glass windows
Any element of the design of Gothic buildings carries some meaning, most often - a religious one.
Stained glass windows are no exception. Each of them is a painting depicting a scene from the lives of saints or other characters in Catholic books. Despite the huge area of stained-glass windows and their color saturation, they look gray and faded outside the building. All their beauty appears only when the sun's rays pass through the glass. The multi-colored glow gives the space of the cathedrals a special flavor and solemnity.
Stained-glass windows by Marc Chagall
Religious scenes in numerous stained-glass windows of religious buildings so often and in detail detailed the plots of religious books that over time they were ranked among some equivalents of handwritten texts.
Stained-glass windows in the Gothic style
If you want to decorate your house in the Gothic style, you can do it indoors. Sculptures, bas-reliefs, stained glass windows and columns will help create an appropriate monumental and religious atmosphere. In order to give the structure the features of Gothic architecture, you can use several techniques:
Self-adhesive stained glass films
The design of a house in the Gothic style involves the installation of massive stained glass windows.
The dimensions of these structures are quite significant, therefore, of all the techniques for joining pieces of glass, only one can be used: "soldered stained glass".
What is required to create this eye-catching decorative element?
Stained glass equipment
The main work in the manufacture of soldered stained-glass windows is cutting and turning glass. This material requires careful handling, so a spacious, smooth and level table will be required. Its optimal height is 5-10 cm above the waist of the person who will be making the stained glass window.
The main tool you will have to work with is a glass cutter. You can use any, the one that is most convenient:
Types of glass cutters
When choosing a tool, it is important to pay attention to how comfortable its handle (handle) is. It is best to buy a glass cutter with a diamond cutting edge. But it should be borne in mind that in the process of work it will need to be sharpened periodically.
Therefore, together with the glass cutter, it is recommended to purchase a special sharpening machine or a block with a coating of diamond dust.
Oil glass cutter
Suitable for cutting stained glass and tool with automatic lubricant supply: oil glass cutter. The universal is equipped with a fixed head. It is convenient for cutting glass in straight lines. For curved edges, it is recommended to use a rotary head oil glass cutter.
For turning pieces of glass, use special grinders such as Kristall 2000 S, Edima E1M, DIAMANTOR. This is a professional equipment equipped with water supply and cooling mechanisms. Each of these machines has a high-quality wound protection system, which ensures maximum comfort when turning glass.
Glass grinder Kristall 2000S
Despite the fact that this equipment belongs to the category of professional, it is quite affordable. You can buy it in specialized stores.
Some stained glass workshops offer used tools at an affordable price. Grinding machines of the Kristall series are most convenient for a novice master. They are easy to change the cutting head and the possibility of using an additional belt mechanism for glass turning.
Tongs and pliers are required from the tools at hand. For work with glass with a thickness of 4 mm or more, a glass cutout breaker will be required.
Many craftsmen use tongs and devices for 3-point glass breaking in their work. When choosing the tools at hand, they are guided by the complexity of the stained glass pattern and the thickness of the glass.
To make a stained-glass window in the Gothic style, you need a frame for connecting glass modules. Thus, they ensure the strength and durability of the structure. To create a frame, you can use any profile: brass, lead, copper, steel.
This material is otherwise called "broach".
H-shaped broach for assembling stained-glass windows
To ensure the strength and beauty of large-sized structures, order a forged profile. Such a stained glass window looks solid and lasts a long time. The forged profile has only one drawback: the high price. The best choice for strengthening a massive stained-glass window is a lead profile.
It has a significantly higher rigidity than copper and brass.But brass has a more attractive appearance and is often used in the manufacture of Tiffany stained glass windows.
Stained glass lead profile
Any of the listed types of profiles can be H-shaped, U-shaped, Y-shaped. Broaches of the first type are required to connect the stained glass modules. U-shaped profiles are needed for edging the structure and making the frame.
With the help of Y-shaped broaches, the stained glass window is inserted into special frames equipped with slots.
There are special soldering irons for stained glass work on sale. They are equipped with a voltage regulator and allow replacement of the tip. The last point is especially important, since most of the work on assembling a soldered stained glass window cannot be performed with a soldering iron with a thick tip. Masters recommend purchasing a 65-100 W instrument.
This power is enough for high-quality joining of glass pieces of any size.
In addition to the soldering iron, you will need solder. The optimal choice is POS-61 or POS─ 63. Sold in bobbins and bars. Average thickness - 3 mm.
This solder can be used with a 40W soldering iron. This tool has a thin tip, with which the soldering process will be more convenient and quick.
POS-61 solder with rosin
To work with solder, you need a flux. Among the masters, there is no consensus about which flux is better. But the general recommendation is this: while there is no skill in the manufacture of soldered stained-glass windows, it is advisable to buy a universal one.
With experience, you will understand which one is most convenient.
If the stained glass pattern includes many small details, each piece of glass will need to be wrapped around the edge with special adhesive foil tape ... Large elements of the stained-glass window are connected using a broach.
The tape is sold in reels, the width of the strip can be different: 4.66 mm, 5.16 mm, 6.35 mm. The foil can be with or without a black backing.
If you plan to work with light-colored glass, when looking at the stained glass from the side, the black backing may be noticeable.
Copper tape for stained glass
For a stained-glass window in the Gothic style, you need to choose not an abstract drawing, but a real picture depicting scenes from Catholic books. Those who are not adherents of this religion can choose drawings with images of animals and birds, planets and stars.
Patterns of stained-glass windows
As a rule, a Gothic stained-glass window has considerable height and width. Therefore, drawing a sketch that will serve as a template will be difficult even for those who have artist skills.
The easiest way is to find a suitable drawing in electronic format and print it on several sheets of paper. You can draw a sketch yourself using the CoralDrow program.You will need a plotter to cut the template, so it will be necessary to resort to the services of workshops for the production of signs, advertising posters and banners.
It is important that all sketch lines are clear and without breaks. If necessary, some details can be completed with a felt-tip pen or marker.
The finished template needs to be fixed on the desktop. To do this, you can use double-sided tape, buttons, small nails and wooden slats. You need to make sure that the sketch is stationary. In this case, the set of stained glass will be easier and more convenient.
Step 1 .
On the template fixed on the desktop, they mark what color each element of the picture will be. You can mark with colored felt-tip pens or sign with a simple pencil.
Step 2. Select a piece of glass of the desired color and put it on top of the corresponding part of the drawing.
We transfer the details to the film
Cut out the film and lay it on the glass
If the lines of the drawing are clearly visible through the glass, draw along the contour of the part with a glass cutter. If the lines are poorly visible, draw them on the glass. When working with a glass cutter, it is necessary to adhere to the recommendations of the masters of stained glass art:
Cut out the parts
Break off the part
Step 4. Turn on the grinder and bring the edge of the glass to the rotating head.
Lightly touching the mechanism, grind the part. During work, "fitting" is performed: they put the cut element of the pattern on the template and check the correspondence of the sizes and bends of the lines.
The part must be ground on a grinder so that the edges are even
Step 5. The rinsed piece of glass is wrapped with adhesive foil tape. To accomplish this task, you can use special tools: rollers.
But you can do without them. The tape is glued so that its edges cover the glass from both sides, protruding beyond the edge by 1 mm. Therefore, the width of the tape must correspond to the thickness of the glass, taking into account this requirement.
Wrap the edges with foil
Put the details on the sketch
All parts are laid
Step 5. When a part of the drawing is ready and all of it is laid on the template, cut from glass, elements, proceed to soldering.
The soldering iron is heated to the desired temperature, a solder bar is taken and applied to the junction line of two pieces of glass.
Step 6 . They touch the solder with a soldering iron and "lead" the solder along the line of the drawing.
Step 7 . After all the joints between the elements of the template have been worked out, the glass sheet is turned over and the same work is done again: the pieces of glass are soldered to each other.
Step 8. When several modules of the drawing are ready, proceed to connect them using a broach. At this stage of work, an H-shaped profile is used. It is flexible enough to connect glass even with complex bending lines.
After assembling the stained-glass window, it must be installed in the frame. If the canvas turns out to be light enough, you can use wooden glazing beads with a slot. In this case, you will need a Y-shaped profile, the narrow part of which is inserted into the slots.
For heavy-weight stained-glass windows, use wooden or metal frames with a U-shaped section. The width of these strips should correspond to the thickness of the glass, taking into account two layers of solder and adhesive tape.
Step 10. The stained glass in the frame is installed in the window opening.
In order to give the building a Gothic flavor, it is necessary to arrange the facade in the appropriate style. Before starting work, it is recommended to carefully consider the photos of Gothic cathedrals and castles, to choose decor elements suitable for a particular building.
Gothic is characterized by gloomy gray tones.
Therefore, façade panels that imitate natural stone masonry are suitable.
Facade panels vinyTherm
Vinylit facade cladding panels with natural stone chips
Polyurethane false columns and arches can be installed to give the impression of massive openings and arches typical of the Gothic architectural style. But it should be borne in mind that polyurethane foam is a material of white or other light color. All of them are unusual for the Gothic. Therefore, the columns and arches will need to be painted gray or another selected color.
The tops of the columns of the Gothic English cathedral
When choosing polyurethane foam decor elements, one should take into account that most false columns offered by manufacturers have openwork framing. These décor elements are suitable for a Baroque facade. The Gothic style is characterized by simplicity and laconic lines. Therefore, you need to choose those elements that have as few pretentious curls as possible.
Polyurethane stucco decoration
The whole complex of works can be divided into three stages:
First of all, you need to make a visual inspection of the walls and make sure that they do not require cosmetic repairs. If the situation is the opposite, proceed to the preparation of the facade.
Step 1. Remove the old finishing layer from the walls.
If there are cracks, clean them out, simultaneously removing all weak particles.
Removing the old coating
Step 3. Dust the surface with a rag or vacuum cleaner.
Step 4. The walls are primed by 1-2 layers, using special compositions for processing facades.
Step 5. Cracks are sealed with a cement-sand mortar prepared in proportion 3 : 1 (one part of cement grade not lower than M400 and 1 part of quarry sand).
Step 6. In places where necessary, apply a layer of plaster and align it. Then the plaster surface is trowelled using a special tool: a float.
This approach will keep the walls smooth.
Polyurethane foam decorative elements have a flat back surface. It is she who must adhere to the facade wall. Any column consists of two main parts:
The capital is a figured part that crowns the trunk.
The installation of the column is carried out in stages: first, the main part (trunk) is attached, then the capital.
Step 1. Marks are applied to the facade that determine the location of the decor elements.
Step 2. Perform "fitting": apply the detail to the facade.
If the height of the house is such that the length of one false column is not enough, the missing part is cut off from the other column. To complete the task, use a hacksaw for metal with a fine tooth or a jigsaw with a similar file.
Step 3. Mark where the holes are to be drilled in the wall, which are necessary for mounting the column. Fasteners must be at least 1 cm from the ends of the part.
Holes in the wall are drilled with a step of 40-50 cm. A drill (perforator) and a drill with a victorious solder are used. The optimum hole depth is 7-8 cm.
Step 4. Metal studs or dowel nails are used as fasteners.
In the first case, you will need to drill holes on the back of the column. The depth is determined depending on the thickness of this decorative element.
If it is decided to fasten the trunk with a dowel of nails, a plastic part is driven into the holes in the wall: dowels.
Step 5. Attach the column to the wall or either push it onto metal studs pre-installed in the holes, or fix it by screwing screws into the dowels.
Step 6. Metal corners are needed to connect the two barrel parts together. The lower part of which is attached to the horizontal cut of the lower part of the trunk, the lateral part - to the building wall.
Step 7 . The upper part of the column is fixed: a capital.
The same technique is used as for mounting the barrel.
Step 8 . Using a moisture-resistant putty, the caps of the screws are masked.
If the walls of the house quite even, you can simplify the task of decorating the facade and glue polyurethane foam decor elements. The following types of compositions are suitable for this purpose:
Installation of decorative elements
The process of gluing and applying glue must comply with the instructions suggested by the manufacturer of this composition. But there are general recommendations:
PU (polyurethane foam) can be painted with any of the following types of paints:
Any convenient tool is suitable for application:
Experts recommend using latex paints for painting polyurethane foam.
This is explained by the fact that with the help of these compositions it is easy to obtain the desired shade of color, you can quickly dilute the paint with water to the desired thickness, each layer dries quickly.
If you want to lower the flammability threshold of polyurethane foam, use acrylic paints with fire retardant properties. No special paints for PU foam have been developed. Therefore acrylic paint for metal "Polistil" is suitable. It is important to take into account such a property of the compositions as moisture resistance.
If a brush or roller is used, paint is applied in even strokes in one direction. When applying the next layer, the direction of the strokes is changed: from vertical to horizontal and vice versa. For high-quality staining of decorative elements, capitals use a thin paint brush.
Painted decor element
Decorative elements such as false arches are suitable for decorating the facade in the Gothic style. The installation process is similar to the installation of columns.
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