Types of hammers and their purpose by profession and type of work
The tool, which is familiar to us since childhood, is a hammer, and in the minds of most people it is a primitive instrument of labor, which was used by primitive people.
Yes, this is a historical fact, but this should not diminish the role of an ingenious device with a shock action, which can be described as the most effective mechanism for converting kinetic energy into work of a mechanical nature.
We propose to consider the types of hammers and their purpose, but for now we offer a little theory.
When hammering in a nail, no one even thinks about a complex physical transformation in the system "solid-nail-hammer". The efficiency is between 70 and 97%.
For most mechanisms and modern machines, this limit is unattainable.
The main part of the energy loss goes to the tool's kickback due to the appearance of elastic force. The amount of recoil will depend on the material of the hammer and its properties. For a steel tool, the energy loss is 30%, for a titanium product from 3 to 5%,
but the indicators may vary from other parameters:
- The shape and appearance of the striking part.
- Material and handle length.
- Tool weight.
- Angle of contact.
- Match the hammer type to the operations being performed.
The last point is especially important for mechanical engineering, construction, stone processing, since different types of hammers are needed with different types of versatility. Among them, you can choose a tool for any occasion, for professional and domestic use, those that are "sharpened" to perform only one operation, but with a high degree of efficiency.
The two main parts that make up the hammer are the head and the handle, which are firmly connected to each other. When moving, two large forces act on the head at once. If at the junction there is even the slightest wobble or even cracks appear on the handle, then the hammer cannot be used, since it is dangerous for others and the worker.
The head consists of a toe, a hole for a handle, a wedge, a nail puller, a striker, a cheek and the handle itself. The striker, which is the head striking part, is usually flat and has a large strength and area, and also makes it possible to withstand many impact contacts with a solid body without deformation.
The impact surface is slightly convex or flat, and in cross section it is completely square, circle or rectangle.
The back is usually wedge-shaped, which allows for greater impact force due to reduced pad contact. Impacts are used to split the material or for embossing.The back part is spherical, but much depends on the area of application and the main purpose.
The back is an oval or round through-type hole, and its walls expand slightly from the center to the upper part, and to prevent possible slipping from the handle.
On certain types of hammers, a forging around the bore in the form of a metal collar is provided for a couple of cm. This part of the tool helps to protect the handle from kinking with an inaccurate or very strong impact.
The head is made of hard metal by forging, milling or casting. It is protected from corrosive effects by special types of paint or even galvanized coating. The impact part receives the highest hardness (this is 52 units on the Rockwell scale).
It is hardened by the electric induction method, which makes it possible to perfectly adjust the depth of surface hardening. In this part, the hardening depth ranges from 0.3 to 0.5 cm.
Although there are many varieties of hammers and they differ from each other, the rear part (nose or wedge) is strengthened from 36 to 42, and the place of the bore hole is only from 24 to 20 units on the Rockwell scale.
Weight, shape, size and other characteristics of hammers are determined according to GOST 11042-90 and 2310-77, which describe almost all types of hammers, as well as their direct purpose.
Most manufacturers produce tools according to their specifications, where most of the requirements from national standards are taken into account. The changes will concern the length, new alloys and shape of the handle, improved ergonomics, PC modeling, more precise surface treatment.
Differs in shape - the back is made in the form of a nail puller. Most often, the types of percussion instruments and their purpose can be determined by design.
This is usually a double-acting tool with which you can perform several operations at once without using other methods.
The weight of the carpenter's hammer can be from 0.3 to 0.8 kg. They are designed to drive in wedges, nails, fit wood mates.
The working surface is corrugated or smooth, the back part (nailer) can be with different bending angles, from 0 to 120 degrees. The first invention of such a percussion instrument was dated 1514. Such hammers are used for the assembly work of various auxiliary and supporting structures made of wood.
Some types of tools have special slots on the head for nailing or a magnetic striker that holds the mount in position and can be operated with one hand.
This is a tool of high precision, and it requires not only great impact force, but precision.
Produce the tool in the range of mass of the main part - from 0.1 to 0.8 kg. The striking part is usually perfectly flat, and the back is sometimes a nailer and sometimes a wedge.The handles are not only made of wood, because there are fiberglass, metal, rubber or polymer grips to prevent the hand from slipping.
This is a very similar tool to a carpenter's hammer, but the locksmith has a wedge-shaped back and a slightly convex firing pin, the metal is hardened up to 50 units, and this prevents damage when hitting a core or even a chisel. The weight range is also from 0. 1 to 0. 8, the handle can be of different materials, and is usually covered with an oil-resistant pad.
And here under the name several types of hammers are combined at once, which differ in the presence of a striking plane and a special back side, which is needed for chipping and breaking bricks and concrete and stone materials.
The back part is in the form of a sharpened or flat pick, and it is for this reason that the instrument is called Geneva or Berlin.
Working with ceramic and stone materials requires an increased level of hammer strength, and therefore they are cemented or induction hardened to a hardness that is not lower than that of a blacksmith's hammer. Among the universal tools, we single out hammers in order to apply decorative notches.
The instrument is called a "bushard" and differs in the presence of different projections, bumps and notches on the striking part. As in the sledgehammer, the handle of such a tool is inserted from above and is not wedged.
Often the handle is marked with a ruler, which makes it easier to work with adjusting bricks for masonry and bandaging complex architectural elements.
The Tiler's Hammer
The profession and the hammer are inextricably linked. When laying ceramic tiles, huge mechanical loads and impacts are not used, because accuracy is also important here, just like with carpentry. The weight of the tiler's blade is rarely more than 0.075 kg, and the impact part is hardened to the limit.
Tools are used to chip off small pieces of tile during sizing. Care and precision are required when using.
Depending on the roofing material used, a tool with a polymer or even steel striker must be selected. The handle is usually made of wood. Unlike a straightening hammer, which is also needed for sheet metal work, the back of a roof hammer is a sharpened wedge, almost like a pickaxe.
It is needed for punching holes in the sheet and for folding edges / folds. These slate roofing tools differ from the metal hammer - they have wider slate nails and a specially shaped nail puller at the back.
Mallets and straightening hammers
Required for leveling deformed sheet products, installing a roof, gutter system and other operations that directly associated with sheet metal.Usually the tool is made of polyurethane or rubber, but there are also models with a metal head, which is equipped with replaceable dies made of soft materials.
Spinning hammers are popular among flattening hammers that do not bounce at all.
They are made with a hollow striker in which sand is poured. This helps to completely absorb the impact energy and the hammer practically "sticks" to the processing surface.
Mallets are needed for locksmith and carpentry work. They are made of hardwood, polymeric materials or molded rubber and are needed for straightening, fitting and leveling large parts, as well as for working with chisels, wedges, chisels and cutters.
The striking part is a rectangular parallelepiped, and the handle is made of durable plastic, wood, metal, fiberglass, and usually with a round section.
Joiner's mallets can be cylindrical, and locksmiths have a wedge-shaped part. For delicate work, the striker can be supplemented with plastic, leather, rubber or rubber nozzles / pads.
Hammers and sledge hammers
One of the trendiest percussion instruments is the sledgehammer, with a massive head on a very long handle. They are used for various operations where high impact force and low accuracy are tedious - crushing concrete, stones, hammering racks and wedges, forging large parts.
In ancient times, sledgehammers were used as an effective and powerful weapon.
This is usually a two-handed tool, but there are also varieties for one-handed work in a narrow room. The production of sledgehammers is regulated by GOST, and the mass of the working part of the tool can be from 8 to 10 kg, and in general, the method can even be 16 kg.
The varieties of hammers and their purpose are more interesting than it might seem at first glance. Consider unusual views.
It is needed to determine the hardness of concrete products, and can be in the following varieties:
Consider a couple more interesting species.
It is used for car body repairs and for work with thin sheet metal, however, it practically does not has nothing to do with a conventional hammer, since we are talking about a complex system of vacuum suction cups, bushings, hooks and other parts that interact with each other in a complex scheme.
From a practical device, the hammer has become an exquisite accessory, which is mostly used for decoration. It is a mallet made of wood of an unusual shape, which is fixed on a hinge or cord near the front door.
Hammer of auctioneers and judges
This a tool made of wood to grab the audience's attention and announce the end of a sale / justice phase.
According to external data, it resembles a mallet, but there are also unusual products that are incredible works of art.
It is used to strike a surgical chisel or instruments in the field of dentistry with it.
Made of medical grade stainless steel, cast iron, brass, and equipped with polymer pads to reduce impact noise.
This is a medical device to detect different nervous reactions when searching for pathologies. Made of stainless steel and fitted with resin or rubber tips on both sides of the symmetrical head. Sometimes the kit includes a neurological needle that is hidden in the handle.
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