Heating, water supply and sewerage systems

Heating, water supply and sewerage systems System design and installation of water supply, sewerage and heating

Sewerage, water supply and heating are an integral part housing. They are all highly interconnected, and the failure of each of them is a way to lead to household chores. Engineering type networks can be centralized and autonomous. With proper design, correct and competent installation, communications can serve for more than a dozen years.

Water supply and plumbing for cold / hot water.

A water supply system is a set of building structures that will purify, take, and supply water to those who live in various localities.

The centralized water supply system will include a water source, filters, pumping facilities, tanks and pipelines.

General information

The water supply of housing consists of shut-off and drain valves, a check valve, pipes, filters, a hydraulic accumulator and a flexible connection to it. There is also a pressure switch, a bathroom, a pressure gauge, a manifold, a tee (bathroom, sink and toilet), fuses, faucets and a water heater.

Please note that the water supply system, or rather its diagram, will be drawn up by the designer.

The elements will be very different from the layout of the structure, as well as the method of extraction (autonomous and centralized).

Those who live in the private sector design a layout of an independent water supply, which includes a sanitary unit, a well, mixers, a pump, a water heater, a check valve, filters, a hydraulic accumulator and an automatic pump control device ... Plumbing should be laid in the bathroom.

It will not matter here whether it is an autonomous source or a centralized one, the pipeline should be laid in the same way. In the photo you will see the process of laying the water main for the bathroom. In the wall, you need to make special channels for pipes.

People living in the apartment will use the centralized water supply system. In a private house, external and internal work is carried out.

Here you need to invest funds to drill a well, as well as buy a pumping unit. Pipes usually run underground, so you should take care of their insulation in advance or even increase the laying depth. This will help keep the water from freezing in the winter. Autonomous water supply will include filters. After carrying out external work, you should proceed to the supply of water inside the house.

The essence of the installation work is the same as with the centralized one, but the exception will be the installation of automation for controlling the pumping station. Consideration should be given to a reservoir to store water in case there is no electricity.

Details

Basis of construction

Heating, water supply and sewerage systems Important! For the convenience of carrying out repair work, you will need to install separate water shut-off valves for the sanitary unit and in the kitchen.In this case, the drain will not be carried out from the general network.

The basis of the plumbing structure will be a pipe.

You will need to decide on the material that you plan to use. Metal is perfect for external and internal work, because it is relatively inexpensive and durable. The only drawback will be corrosion. Copper building materials will be much lighter, and also will not succumb to rust, can withstand very high and low temperatures, kill germs, and the disadvantage will be high cost. The service life is more than 70 years.

In the photo you can see the wiring using copper pipes.

Polybutylene is used for a private house, because it is not exposed to rust, and also tolerates high and low temperatures. Products made of polypropylene are perfect for hot and cold water supply. Construction materials made of metal-plastic are used for indoor installation in a house or apartment. They will be wall mounted to avoid damage.

Flexible sanitary wiring is installed for washing machines and sinks. With careful use, plastic products can last up to 50 years.

Please note that water lines should be laid lower than electrical and gas supply systems. Hot water pipes should be installed over cold water pipes.

For the installation of a water supply system, or rather hot water, it is necessary to take into account the remoteness of the mixer from the device for heating (double-circuit boiler or water heater).

A pipe with cold water should be brought to the heating device, and two pipes should be installed in the mixer, which run in parallel, for hot and cold water supply. If the consumption point is located far from the boiler or boiler, then a third pipe must be laid to circulate water inside the system.

Heating system

The heating system makes it possible to maintain an ideal temperature mode in the winter season. You can heat your home using centralized sources, as well as in an independent mode. An autonomous heating system will make it possible to adjust the temperature in an apartment or house.

When designing a heating system, several factors will be taken into account:

  • Financial costs.
  • It is useful for a house or apartment.
  • What result do you expect.

The system for heating supply can be:

  • Air.
  • Water.

  • "warm floor", other types.
  • Electric.

Please note that the scheme for designing a heating system will depend on the type of heat carrier. The project will be drawn up by a specialist who can take into account all the features of engineering structures, as well as the selected heat source.

The water-type heating system

… will occupy a leading position among all other systems.

It is economical, quiet, durable, and also very convenient for repair work. In this photo you will see the water heating of a private house. The radiator, which is installed on the wall, receives heated liquid from the heating device. The working scheme is extremely simple - the heating boiler will heat up the water, and it will circulate throughout the network. After the water cools down, under the influence of different pressures, it will heat up and flow into the heating device.

A similar design would include a circular pump, a boiler and a membrane tank. The air-type heating system will work thanks to the recirculation of warm air flows. For this, heaters are used.

When installing an electronic heating system, it is imperative to take into account the total mains voltage of the engineering building so that there are no overloads and subsequent power outages. The designer will draw up the required system diagram, as well as determine the level of workload.

This type of heating will be economical; it is used for apartments and houses. The convector will make it possible to mount the required temperature regime. Cold air will enter the heating elements of the device, supplying heated air masses to the room.

The autonomous heating system will include:

  • Boiler.
  • Pumps for air circulation through the system.

  • Pipes (made of metal-plastic, polymers, copper or steel).
  • Radiators.

Now let's look at the third component.

Sewerage and its maintenance

Sewerage systems of a house are a complex of engineering structures that are capable of collecting dirty runoff, human activity, precipitation, industrial emissions, their processing, purification and disposal ..

. To remove pollution from a residential building, an internal sewage system is installed outside them. The external sewerage system will be responsible for further cleaning and draining. The scheme of the internal sewage system will look like this - through the sanitary unit, dirty water will enter the pipeline. Then it will pass through the odor trap and remove unpleasant odors.

After the sewage, it will enter the common riser, go through the outlet and cleaning devices, and at the end they will be directed by gravity into the external urban sewer.

Not in every house sewage gets into the external sewerage system, and this is due to the location inside the basement. For such structures, additional pumps are required. In the outer part of the sewerage system, waste will fall into wells, pumping structures, and then to treatment facilities. There, after cleaning and disinfection, the wastewater will be discharged into water bodies.

Those who live in private houses usually have to install autonomous drains. These will be shaped cesspools, into which the internal sewerage system of the housing will drain. As it is filled, special equipment (such as sewage pumps) will transport the sewage to the treatment plant.In the cesspools, it is imperative to add septic tanks that can kill up to 80% of microorganisms. In the photo there is a sewerage scheme for a country house, and the structure is also equipped with two reservoirs, and one of them is purified.

Additional purification is possible using the filtering field. These are the pipes through which the waste will flow, as well as fall on the prepared sand and gravel soil. In addition, cassette filters are also used, which will provide additional purification of sewage after disinfection with a septic tank. Such water is allowed to be used for technical needs. Please note that autonomous drains should be changed every 9-10 years.

What is the design of communications for?

The design of communications is an important stage in the construction and arrangement of housing. Experts will identify the heat costs of your home, and will also assess the state of the structure (floors, ceilings and walls), will be able to select building materials, equipment for heating water and will make an estimate of expenditures for 1 m 2 . With a professionally made project, you can decide on the installation method, size, and also calculate the slope for the sewer. By investing in the design and installation of communications once, you can ensure yourself a pleasant stay in the house.

Diagram of the heating and water supply wiring

Heating, water supply and sewerage systems When replacing old or the installation of new communications should take into account the features of the original building materials and the design of the room.

The wiring sketch must necessarily fit comfortably into the sanitary unit, and also be available for presumptive repairs and fit the interior. In the apartments, the heating distribution will be designed by the developers in the building. The plumbing layout needs redevelopment.

This can be done in the following ways:

  • Collector (taps from the sink, bathtub, toilet bowl will go separately, and they will also converge in the collector comb).
  • Consecutive (one of the pipes will be on the sanitary facilities, as well as separate valves).

  • Mixed (some devices will be routed through the manifold comb, and the rest regardless of them).

Water supply wiring diagram

It will look like this:

  • In the toilet or the bathroom will have a riser with two valves.
  • There will be a tee next to the control valve that is capable of feeding the waste cistern.
  • Next, the lead of the bathroom faucet is welded and attached to the pipes.
  • The mixer should be put on a sink and everything should be connected to the water supply with flexible hoses.

In the photo you will see an example of a collector wiring diagram for a water supply system. Hot water will flow along the red lines, and cold water along the blue. A private house will have the same wiring diagram. If the bathroom and kitchen will be located close, a sequential divorce will do.If there are several bathrooms, you should pay attention to the collector type diagram.

The heating system in the private sector will be created from scratch.

Types of heating dilution can be:

  • Collector (single control panel, you can adjust the temperature of the radiator, but the disadvantage will be a large consumption of materials).
  • Two-pipe (chokes are used on heating devices, and radiators will act as a jumper between the pipes).
  • One-pipe, that is, barrack type (large pipes are laid throughout the house, and heating devices are placed in parallel).

Good layout, installation of structures from engineering networks by specialists, use of high-quality materials will give a chance to check everything for serviceability, as well as the quality of the services provided.

This will be the key to economical use, long-term operation and the ability to be the master in a comfortable and cozy home.

( 1 grade, average 5 of 5 )

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