The construction of a private house will inevitably end with the finishing of its outer part. The facade is the first thing that guests and neighbors of the owner pay attention to. Therefore, it is so important to check whether the facade cladding will be of high quality and beautiful. Which material is best suited for this purpose depends on many factors. Including from the characteristics of the house, the preferences of the owner and the climate in the region.
Creating an aesthetically pleasing look is not the only function for which the facade is given so much attention. The cladding also protects the walls from negative environmental influences. For example:
If the facade of the house is finished correctly, destructive natural factors will not affect it in any way. This will allow the owner not to spend money on numerous repairs and significantly save the budget.
Important! You shouldn't make a choice in favor of cheap materials for the facade. After all, an investment will be a profitable investment in a comfortable future.
Finishing material can be attached to the wall of the building by various methods.
It can be a structure in several layers or
By the type of installation, facade structures are:
Installation is somewhat more convenient than in the first case, it can be carried out in winter and summer. However, the "dry" method cannot achieve such a consistent coating as with the "wet" material.
There is also a gradation according to the structure of the wall. Namely, is there a distance between the outer wall of the building and the finishing layer. Facades are:
In the last type of facades, there is a small gap, which is either filled with insulation or left empty. A spacious gap is provided for the active circulation of air currents and the removal of unnecessary liquid. At the same time, the outer surface of the wall is completely protected from any climatic influences. A holistic façade involves the application or installation of cladding close to the outer wall.
Important! A ventilated facade is suitable if the walls are made of natural materials.
They "breathe" and release a small amount of moisture that needs to be removed somehow.
An example is wooden walls, for which a ventilated facade is most often installed.
There is a mass variations of the cladding of the facade of the house.
The most popular options are plastering, siding or facing stone / brick. Each of the methods has its own advantages and disadvantages, so all options should be considered in more detail.
Plaster is the most used finishing method as it is quite easy to apply. The current market is filled with an abundance of formulations that can differ in their properties and the structure of the final coating.
The required material can be selected for an external wall with any type of ceiling.
Decorative plaster has the following characteristics:
There are several types of mixtures that differ from each other in composition.
The most popular are mineral, acrylic, silicone and silicate. The table lists the features of each type.
Table 1. Various types of decorative plaster for wall decoration, their advantages and disadvantages:
|Type of plaster||Pros||Cons|
| Mineral |
| low cost; |
wide range of colors;
immunity to sunlight;
resistance to the growth of microorganisms;
suitable for all building and thermal insulation materials;
resistance to fire.
Thanks to the last point, such a plaster can be used to protect a flammable insulation.
| There is only one minus - insufficient elasticity. This can make building shrinkage problematic. Walls can be covered with many cracks, so this is not suitable for newly built houses.
| Acrylic |
| elastic, in contrast to the above type; |
durable (the facade will be unchanged up to 18 years );
resistant to liquid ingress and severe frost.
| high cost;
flammability of the material;
in a dry state, plaster collects dust well, but it is rather difficult to clean it.
| Silicate |
| the most durable material (the coating will be complete for about 30 years); |
elastic, so it can used before shrinking buildings;
does not attract a lot of dust and is easy to clean;
is immune to temperature fluctuations and humidity.
| undemocratic price;
insufficiently wide range of colors;
is applied only on a special primer, which implies additional costs;
the mixture must be transferred to the wall very quickly otherwise it dries quickly and can no longer be used.
| Silicone |
| durable coating; |
does not allow steam and moisture to pass inside the premises;
does not burn and is suitable for any type of insulation;
does not attract dust, it can easily be cleaned of small dirt in the rain.
|There are almost no shortcomings, except for the expensive cost.|
Important! Do not apply silicate plaster on interior walls in rooms. This material is only used for outdoor work.
Natural or artificial stone is used for facing. Both of these materials are unrivaled in terms of their durability and reliability. In addition, the stone looks stylish and neat. However, such a coating is not cheap, so often only part of the wall is decorated with it.
Advantages of decorative stone:
The severity of natural material and its high cost are noted as disadvantages. It can be replaced with an industrial stone - its weight is several times less than natural. But in any case, such a coating will cost significantly more than other textures for cladding.
Different types of natural stone are used for decoration of external walls. The most popular are quartzite, granite, marble, sandstone.
Artificial stone is able to imitate any texture and shade.
Another fairly used coating for surface finishing is decorative brick.
There are several varieties that differ based on the composition and manufacturing principle. All of them are presented in the table below along with cons and advantages.
Table 2.Varieties of facing bricks, their disadvantages and advantages:
|Brick type||Manufacturing principle||Advantages||Disadvantages|
| Clinker |
|This variety is made from clay with increased plasticity. The material is first pressed and then fired in an oven. A natural dye is added to the raw materials.|| strength and long-term operation; |
resistance to freezing (the material retains its properties after 300 freezing / defrosting cycles);
maximum decorative appearance and abundant range of colors;
Immunity to unshaded sunlight and chemicals.
| expensive material;
| Hyper-pressed |
| The material is based on cement, shell rock and special additives. The bricks are made under a dry press. |
In appearance it is similar to ceramic bricks, but outperforms them in its user characteristics.
| correct geometry of bricks; |
reliability and long-term operation;
| absorbs liquid (water absorption at the level of 5-6%);
over time, the weight and shade of the brick may change;
|Produced on the basis of sand-cement raw materials by autoclaving. It is considered the most affordable finishing material due to its cheap raw materials and ease of manufacture.|| high-strength material; |
correct geometry of bricks;
good sound insulation properties.
| loses to other types of bricks in its aesthetic qualities;
does not retain heat inside the room;
not resistant to severe frosts;
absorbs liquid (water absorption up to 15 %);
| Ceramic |
|The most popular model. Made from clay in a kiln. Ceramic bricks are distinguished by a variety of colors and textures.|| from natural raw materials; |
retains heat and does not allow sound;
resistant to climate change;
| bricks of unequal size come across;
inside the material there may be particles of limestone, which darkens when moisture gets in;
if improperly installed, the brick will begin to crumble and collapse;
the material absorbs liquid, which reduces frost resistance.
Each type of finishing brick has good performance characteristics, as well as a wide range of shades and textures. For finishing, you can use bricks with a matte / glossy coating and mineral chips.
Important! Clinker brick combines the best performance characteristics. Therefore, it is considered the most profitable variation of cladding bricks.
Porcelain stoneware finishing slabs are made from quartz powder, clay mixtures, liquid and spar. This material is considered the most durable for cladding the outer wall of a building, and its user characteristics are similar to natural stone. Slabs 12-16 mm thick are used to decorate a residential building.
Advantages of the material:
Porcelain stoneware slabs can imitate wood, stone and other expensive coatings. The market also offers various types of coatings - glaze, matte, waxy gloss or in the form of a mosaic.
Ceramic tiles have become widespread due to their good operational and decorative characteristics. The material has less porosity than analogs that are used indoors.
Ceramic tiles can be fixed wet or as part of a ventilated façade.
Manufactured based on quartz sand, cement and filler. Concrete tiles cannot be called a common facing material, but advantages are still there.
The most economical and easy-to-install material. It boasts excellent decorative and sound insulation properties, as well as excellent durability (lasts up to 50 years).The material can be used to protect any surface, including long-erected buildings.
There are several types of siding that differ in composition. They are presented in the table below.
Table 3. Varieties of decorative siding, disadvantages and advantages:
|Type of siding||Manufacturing||Advantages||Disadvantages|
| Wooden |
|Consists of dried wood, which was previously treated with an antiseptic.|| natural origin; |
resistance to low temperatures;
excellent thermal insulation characteristics.
| There are quite a few disadvantages:
short service life;
instability to fire;
material requires regular processing with protective compositions.
The market now offers siding based on wood-cellulose raw materials, which makes it possible to negate some of the disadvantages of the panels.
However, such material also does not differ in durability.
| Produced on the basis of polyvinyl chloride, often outwardly reproduces a brick or wild stone. A fairly used material for wall processing, often present in the construction of Russian individual houses. |
| long-term operation; |
immunity to climatic surges, fire and open natural light;
wide range of options;
Resistance to mechanical damage is also ranked among the advantages. But if you hit the sheet hard, you can "decorate" it with a deep dent.
| does not retain heat in the room;
the material can grow in size under the influence of temperature;
a damaged part of the lining is rather difficult to replace.
| Cement |
|Created on the basis of cement compositions and cellulose fibers. The raw materials are mixed and then pressed. The resulting material is capable of competing with natural stone in terms of characteristics.|| increased strength of the material; |
safety from exposure to precipitation and direct sunlight;
sheets are not prone to fire.
| the material is heavy, which makes it difficult to install;
the assortment of shades and textures is not extensive enough.
| Metallic |
| Consists of steel or aluminum sheets, which are processed with polymer raw materials or a primer. |
For individual buildings, aluminum siding is rarely used due to the disadvantageous cost.
It is best to use steel sheets treated with zinc or polymer protection.
| long service life (up to half a century); |
immunity to different temperatures;
does not light;
| if damage appears on the material, it will soon become rusty and the finish will be damaged;
does not retain heat and allows extraneous sounds to enter the room.
In addition, the basement siding should be noted. This material is identical to the PVC-based material, but the sheets are twice as thick (3.
5 mm instead of 0.7-1.2). Due to the increased thickness, siding is more resistant to impacts, therefore it is considered the most suitable option in terms of price / quality ratio.
The material consists of two layers of solid composition, which are combined with a layer of insulation. Usually steel sheets are used as base layers. All interlayers are connected by hot pressing. Panels on the outside can be smooth, uneven or decorative.
As disadvantages, only undemocratic cost can be noted.
Quite a popular material that was previously used only for decoration of office buildings.
Now it has spread to private construction and is actively used in it. Such cladding is easy to recognize - these are square or rectangular sheets of metal with polymer protection on top.
Metal cassettes can be used for both old and newly built buildings. Only the high price is singled out as disadvantages.
One of the varieties of lining, the outer surface of which resembles a rounded log. It is mounted on a double batten of wooden battens.
Insulation is laid on the first, the second serves to create a ventilated gap.
Despite many drawbacks, the material is considered quite popular due to its attractive external data.
Important! Each panel of the block house inside must be treated with an anti-rot and insect compound.
An external treatment is also required to protect it from the effects of precipitation.
Traditional materials are complemented by several innovative ones that have just entered on the market and have not yet gained popularity:
Differs in luxurious decorative properties, has an interesting roughness of the coating. Remains unchanged for a long time. However, this material weighs quite a lot, so for its installation it is necessary to additionally strengthen the foundation.
Thanks to the latter, the finish also becomes thermal insulation. But such sheets are quite expensive.
You can choose the facing material not only on the basis of your own preferences, but also based on the material of the walls of the house. The principles of selection of finishes are discussed in the table below.
Table 4. How to choose the cladding material depending on the material of the walls of the building:
Wall material buildings
|The nuances of the selection of coverage|
|Aerated concrete|| From the selected wall finishing options, you must immediately remove materials with poor steam permeability. Otherwise, the walls will not be well ventilated and will begin to collapse.
Do not use:
paints that give a film coating;
It is important to pay attention to the water resistance of the cladding and good adhesion to the main wall. Artificial stone, decorative bricks and light plaster will do. It would be a good idea to build a ventilated facade.
|Frame|| Absolutely any cladding is suitable for such material.
The most used are finishing bricks, siding, plasters. In addition, they often make a choice in favor of an artificial stone or a block house.
|From SIP panels|| As in the previous case, almost all finishing methods are used. The final choice depends only on the wishes of the owner and limited finances. The most suitable for cladding SIP frames is brick and stone.
These sturdy materials will help strengthen the structure of your home. In addition, plaster mixes are suitable. The frame becomes a reliable support even for compounds that need to be applied in 3-4 layers.The dye can be added both at the application stage and applied to the finished coating.
An unusual solution would be to install cedar panels on the frame.
In this case, insulation is added between the layers, roofing material is optimal. Among the inexpensive options, cladding using vinyl panels is considered the leader.
|From foam blocks|| Such dense walls need to provide good ventilation. In addition, reinforced insulation from sounds and heat loss will not hurt. Siding is considered a good option.
Composite sheets are also suitable. Plaster and silicone paints can be used in areas with pleasant climates.
|Wooden|| The material of the house itself is quite vulnerable, so it needs additional protection. In no case should you use plaster - it will "clog" the pores of the wood, because of which the latter will begin to collapse.
The ideal solution is a finish that is easy to install and repair.
It can be siding or lining. With the use of such panels, the sheathing will allow to preserve the strength of the floors for a long time and to strengthen the thermal insulation, if insulation is placed between the layers. To preserve the appearance of the pristine wood, you will have to cover the cladding with a special compound every 4-6 years.
|From gas silicate blocks|| It is important to remember that gas silicate blocks are very porous, so the walls allow steam and moisture to pass through. Therefore, the cladding should serve not only for decoration, but also to protect the walls from the accumulation of liquid.
It is important to ensure good air circulation. Plasters with high steam permeability are ideal.
Facade cladding will become an economical measure only if you do it yourself. After all, even materials that are cheap at first glance, in the end, make you spend a lot. You have to take into account the cost of all additional elements, equipment for installation and installation work.
Before buying a finishing material, it is important to correlate its price with prospects. This includes the costs of the initial purchase, coverage renewal and maintenance costs, and total lifespan.
But we must not forget about the attractiveness of the future coating. Before the final choice, it is worth looking for photos of the finished coating on the Internet. So it will be possible to evaluate the appearance and choose the performance feature that you will like.
The outer coating should be as attractive as possible for all the inhabitants of the house, this is the only way to enjoy life in it.
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