We build a utility block in the country with our own hands + drawings
The utility block is not included in compulsory buildings at their summer cottage. In dacha cooperatives of the USSR times, in which 4-6 hectares were "cut" per owner, and in most cases the economic block was not equipped. At the moment, many people consider the dacha as a country house, and therefore bring all the attributes into it, even the projects of utility blocks for the dacha.
If we do not consider outbuildings made of bricks or other building blocks, then all buildings of this type can be divided into large 2 groups by materials of manufacture - wooden and metal ..
Metal household blocks
Household blocks made of metal can be divided into 3 categories:
- Welded - made according to individual projects from sheet material.
- Converted transport containers.
- Ready-made block-containers in the factory complete set.
There are also welded utility blocks.
They can be compared to a kind of garages. The only difference is that a door is installed instead of a gate. The advantage of this method of creation will be the freedom in choosing the size. Although this is possible only if you make a "box" on site (for a large number of designs there are restrictions on transportation). In this option, corners and channels are used as load-bearing frame elements.
Additional stiffening elements can be made of metal strip, and the sheathing will be profiled or sheet steel. The insertion of windows and doors requires the installation of additional reinforcing profiles. In the role of internal sheathing, a planed edged board, moisture-resistant plywood or OSB-3 can be used. If the interior must be warm, then insulation is carried out by means of polystyrene foam or expanded polystyrene.
Even a small container can be used to make a utility block with one section.
From large sea containers (20 to 40 feet), a shed with a wide profile will come out, where you can stir not only a storage room for gardening tools, but also equip a full-fledged sanitary-type compartment with a toilet and shower. For an ordinary change house, which is intended only for storage, the use of a container is ideal. There is no need for windows, and the locking system is very strong, and only an excellent lock is needed. For a multifunctional utility block, the container needs to be modified:
Ready-made blocks are the most expensive option for a metal utility block, but at the same time the easiest to assemble and quickest to install on site.
If the owner of the summer cottage is not limited in the budget, then on the Internet there are many offers for the sale of ready-made block containers, including those for domestic use. Unlike the samples, which are intended for public use, the household models are made of two compartments - a toilet and a shower stall.
There are only two options - frame or panel board. The shield-type hozblock differs from the frame only in the assembly method, and it is used much less often - the fact is that it loses to the frame construction in terms of the quality of fit. But certain builders prefer to assemble the walls entirely "on the ground", each with its own frame, and with all the necessary openings.
After the wall is raised, installed on the lower harness, connected to each other with the base, the upper roof and harness are installed. At the same time, for small blocks, the hanging type rafter system can still be assembled on the ground. The supporting structure of the frame household block is assembled from beams. After, depending on the purpose of the household premises, they are sheathed with boards or OSB with further external and internal finishing (if necessary).
Projects of household blocks for a summer residence with drawings and dimensions is very important.
Before starting construction, it is required to develop a project. For such a modest building as a utility block, it can be an ordinary "freehand" drawing, but with the obligatory observance of the scale, proportions and indication of the main dimensions. After, based on such a picture, you can make a more detailed detailing of all structural units. This stage is needed to calculate the number of materials and make an approximate estimate.
And in general, the construction process of the economic block looks like this:
Let's take a closer look at everything.
Even for such a light structure as a change house, a very stable and solid foundation is required. And it must rise above the surface of the soil so that moisture from precipitation and soil does not get into the structural tree. the simplest type is the foundation for the utility block, that is, the columnar foundation. It is usually made from solid building blocks - ordinary brick or even cinder block. The construction algorithm is simple.
Please note that a pile foundation made of asbestos-cement pipes can also be attributed to low-budget types of foundations. But its laying takes much more time - about 1 month is required only for concrete hardening.
For the construction process, only dry wood with a moisture content of not more than 20% is required.In addition, before installation work, all frame wooden parts must be treated with antiseptics. Ideally, wood should be treated with fire retardants, but universal fire and bioprotection compositions can also be used.
By the way, drying oil is not suitable for this. For the lower strapping, a bar with a section of 15 * 10 cm is used, placed on the long part of the side, or a bar with a section of 15 * 15 cm. The corner joint is ordinary, in half a tree. On the base blocks, the lower harness is laid, underlining the roofing material folded in two. For a floor that is insulated, you can lay a second crown from a 10 * 10 cm bar.
On another 5 cm shelf, lags with a section of 10 * 5 cm are attached.
Corner types of racks are made from a 10 * 10 bar see From a similar timber make openings in which windows and doors will be installed. You can save money on intermediate racks - they are usually made from a beam of 10 * 5 cm.All elements of the carrier type are attached to the lower strapping by means of metal corners. All racks are set vertically and temporarily fixed by means of jibs that are nailed to the strapping beam.
The upper harness is made of 10 * 10 cm bars. To begin with, grooves are selected on the bar in places where there are corner joints and intersections with the floor beams. Afterwards, a bar is installed along the long wall with grooves upward, and attached to the racks with temporary clamps (perforated metal tape or staples). Then install the rest of the elements, check the level and corners, finally attach the upper harness to the racks.
The distance between the intermediate posts can be selected according to the following criteria:
Racks of window or door openings are set according to the size of purchased products. An exception will be if the frames of windows and doors are made with their own hands.
Drawings and projects of utility blocks in the country always have a roof, usually it is lean-to. There are a couple of solutions:
In this case, the rafters are attached to the harness itself.
Another option would be a support bar with a beveled end, nailed to the rafters and resting on the strapping bar.
If a profiled sheet or metal tile is used as a roof covering, then a film for waterproofing is laid on top of the rafters.For ondulin, slate or bituminous tiles, waterproofing is required only if the block is heated. The new stage will be the installation of the roof sheathing. The pitch will depend on the angle of inclination and the character of the roof.
For example, for ondulin at small roof corners (less than 10 degrees), the lathing is made solid.
Lags are attached to the strapping bars or "second crown". The pitch will largely depend on the thickness of the floorboard - the thicker it is, the greater the distance. So for "twenty" logs are laid in increments of 0. 3 meters, and for boards of 3 cm it will be 0.
4 meters. If OSB is used for the subfloor, then the principle will remain the same: at 1.6 cm it will be 0.35 meters, 1.8 cm at 0.
4 meters, 2. 2 cm at 0.5 meters.
If the utility unit is exposed to the sun, thermal insulation is required for the ceiling or roof. This also makes it possible to prolong the "active" operation of the change house in early spring or late autumn.
A layer-by-layer insulated roof looks like this - a roof with a crate, waterproofing, insulation material that lies between the legs of the rafters or on a false ceiling, steam insulation and roof or ceiling filing.
It is possible to sheathe the utility block (provided that it is not insulated) only outside. The walls in the insulated change house can be of the following type:
- Sheathing from the outside.
- Waterproofing foil.
- Insulation that is tightly packed between the lines.
- Breathable film.
- Internal sheathing.
Please note that when insulating with mineral wool, a ventilation gap is required between the waterproofing film and the top coat. It is set by means of an additional distance rail.
The technology of interior and exterior decoration will depend only on the options used.
Even OSB staining is used as the most accessible method. But to improve adhesion to the paint and varnish material, the cleaning of the protective layer is required.
In order to make an economic block for a summer residence, you need to develop a project yourself. It is enough to look at the manufacturers' websites and select the required layout and functionality. There are even the main drawings and dimensions, it remains only to do the detailing and attachment points.
But this is not difficult, given the structural simplicity.
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