Minimalism in architecture has been gaining in popularity lately. Its main idea is functionality and conciseness, rejection of excesses, heap of details, pretentiousness. For some, he seems too cold and uncomfortable, others, on the contrary, appreciate him for his originality and simplicity. Minimalist houses do not require expensive finishing, but at the same time they always look spectacular and expressive, and also fit perfectly into the natural landscape.
Minimalist house project
Minimalism has a lot in common with styles such as hi-tech and loft:
Such houses are very different from traditional residential buildings in their appearance, and therefore they are mainly chosen by creative people, self-confident, not inclined to hoarding and appreciating personal space. Despite the laconicism of the buildings, the development of projects requires from the architect an impeccable sense of style and high skill - without this, it will not be possible to create an attractive atmosphere in such a structure.
Facade of a house in the style of minimalism, project with a pool
В architecturally, these houses are very diverse. There are structures in the form of large cubes, elongated parallelepipeds, complex structures of several modules. The buildings are characterized by different levels, the presence of niches and ledges, asymmetry.
Roofs are most often flat or gable without overhangs and also asymmetrical. The presence of open terraces is welcome, and it can be located on several sides of the house at once or encircle it with a narrow ribbon. The foundation is usually low, the base, if present, has a discreet monochromatic finish.
Minimalist modular houses
Modern minimalism in architecture
Traditionally, minimalism combines natural and artificial materials - wood, concrete, glass, stone, metal. For the construction of walls, bricks, concrete blocks, frame steel structures, as well as aerated concrete and ceramic blocks are widely used.
Finishing materials are also quite diverse: planken, composite panels, artificial and natural stone, ceramic tiles, corrugated board are used for external cladding. In most projects, these materials are combined with white or light plaster. For roofing, the most common option is PVC membranes and corrugated board.
Planken for finishing
Planken for finishing
The larger the glazing area, the better.Many projects include panoramic windows, glass partitions and walls, there are options with glazed gables and roofs.
If these are simple windows, then they should be larger than standard ones, with a minimum number of jumpers, or even without them at all. The shape of the windows is only rectangular, no arches, round or curly openings. There are also no platbands, shutters, curly lattices, stained-glass windows and any other decor. The maximum that is allowed is tinted glass from the sun and the presence of roller shutters.
The project of a country house with panoramic windows in the style of minimalism
For minimalism is characterized by muted colors close to natural: warm woody, sandy, beige, dark green.
But the basis of the palette is white and gray, which are present in almost every project. Colors are combined in different versions, usually 2-3 shades in one house, although monochrome finishes are often found. Bright tones and contrasting combinations are unacceptable here, even as an accent.
Project of a country house in the style of minimalism, decoration in white and beige colors
House in the style of minimalism, an example of a project with a facade decoration in black
Ideas of minimalism very quickly gained popularity, but even many supporters of the style consider it too strict and cold. Thanks to attempts to make it more comfortable, two areas have emerged at once - soft minimalism and eco-minimalism.
One-storey house with an attic in the style of minimalism with increased functionality
Soft minimalism is characterized by softer lines, warm colors and pleasant textures. Here, all the same restrained forms and lack of decor, but the house seems much more comfortable and attractive. The decoration is dominated by wood, stone and plaster in a variety of combinations, as well as metal and plastic with imitation of natural textures. The basis of the color palette is beige, sand and white, shaded with dark gray and dark brown.
Eco-minimalism involves the use of natural, environmentally friendly materials for the construction and decoration of houses.
The basis is natural stone and wood of various species, and they are supplemented with decorative plaster, ceramics, glass. Solar panels are often installed on the roofs of such houses and create green lawns. Buildings in the style of eco-minimalism are in perfect harmony with the surrounding landscape, and the color scheme additionally includes delicate shades of emerald green, light green, light blue.
Country house in the style of eco-minimalism
There are two more interesting varieties of style - Scandinavian and Japanese minimalism. They are fully consistent with the general concept, but at the same time they have unique ethnic features.
In Scandinavian minimalism, the presence of variegated elements and more contrasting combinations is allowed; wood of various textures prevails in the decoration. Because of this, Scandinavian houses seem more comfortable even in such austere design.
Scandinavian minimalist house
Japanese minimalism is characterized by very simple shapes and monochrome finishes. Residential buildings are very compact, with a regular rectangular shape. Zoning is carried out using wood cladding, glass partitions, metal laths.
Colors: white, dark gray, all shades of wood. When arranging such buildings, an important role is assigned to lighting, which is mounted along the perimeter of openings, eaves, and the lower part of the walls.
Japanese minimalism or the art of building houses on very small lots
Japanese minimalist house on a slope with interesting backlit walls
For finishing in a minimalist style, you can use a wide variety of materials: planken, WPC panels, corrugated board, plaster, textured fiber-reinforced concrete panels and others. The choice depends only on your financial capabilities and preferences. One of the most practical options is to combine a concrete surface with wood sheathing.
An example of combining wood sheathing with plastered surfaces
Most residential buildings are built of bricks or blocks, not concrete, therefore, to get the texture you want, you need to choose a finish that looks like concrete. Thanks to the variety of modern materials, this is not difficult to do. For example, consider the cladding of the facade with Knauf cement water panels and the finishing with plaster for concrete.
Cement slab "Aquapanel". Outdoor
Facade cement panels are a ready-made base for any finish.
They are used when arranging ventilated facades, they are distinguished by a perfectly flat surface, so that the walls do not need to be carefully leveled for painting or plastering. These panels are mesh-reinforced sheets with a Portland cement and lightweight mineral filler core.
Technical characteristics of water panels
|Sheet width||900 mm|
|Sheet length||1200, 2500 mm|
|Weight||16 kg / m2|
|Thermal conductivity||0.32 W / mK|
Plaster under the concrete is very often used for finishing in minimalism, hi-tech and loft styles.
It is great for outdoor use, as it is resistant to moisture and high frost resistance. The most popular brands: Loft-Beton, Novacolor, Concret Art, Prof Decor.
Decorative plaster for concrete
The first step is to dismantle the gutters, cornices, platbands, facade decor, if any. After that, the walls are inspected for damage, the quality of the old coating is checked. If the house was plastered, and there are no visible defects on the surface, you need to lightly knock on the plaster with a hammer: a ringing sound - the coating is strong and reliable, deaf - you need to clean everything off and plaster again.
Masonry joints must be brushed with a steel brush to reveal possible voids.
Knock down sagging and irregularities with a chisel
Further, the detected defects are eliminated with the help of cement mortar: the cracks are embroidered and repaired, empty seams are filled, grooves and chips on the surface. Small protrusions and bumps can be easily removed with a grinder with a grinding attachment. After the repair mortar has dried, the walls are cleaned of dust and a primer is applied. If the walls absorb too quickly, they will have to be primed in 2-3 layers to provide high-quality protection against moisture.
Apply the primer in two coats
Primer for decorative plasters / s.
Aquapanels are mounted on the battens, so there is no need to additionally level the walls with plaster. After the primer has dried, you can immediately start installing the guides. Both metal profiles and wooden beams are suitable for the lathing. When choosing the second option, make sure that the lumber is free from serious defects and is well dried.
Step 1. At the corner of the wall, mark a vertical line using a plumb line and mark her the points of attachment of the guides every 40 cm. The same marking is performed on the opposite corner of the wall.
Step 2. Holes are drilled according to the marking, dust is blown out, dowels are inserted.
Next, they apply the first beam to the wall, bait it with self-tapping screws, set it vertically, using wooden lining if necessary. After making sure that the bar is located correctly, fix it with self-tapping screws until it stops. The second corner beam is also mounted.
Step 3. A string is pulled along the top and bottom edges between the corner guides to make it easier to align the rest of the battens.
Intermediate beams are fastened in 50 cm increments. After completing the installation of the battens, check the verticality of the structure again to avoid skewing of the sheathing.
Lathing for water panels
For installation of water panels, you will need galvanized self-tapping screws , level, screwdriver, mounting spacers 3-5 mm thick.You can cut the material with a jigsaw, circular saw and even an assembly knife, since the panels are cut quite easily.
Cutting the aquapanel
The first panel is applied in width to the crate from the corner, leveled along bottom edge, then horizontally. They are screwed to the beams with self-tapping screws in 25 cm increments - first they are fixed in the center, then they move to the edges.
Aligning the sheet with the markings
Step 2. When installing the second panel, be sure to leave a gap of 3 to 5 mm wide; for convenience, you can insert a piece of a wooden strip of the appropriate thickness. All subsequent panels are attached in the same way.
Installation of water panel sheets
Advice. If the last sheet needs to be cut, it is laid on a flat surface, a cut line is marked with a pencil, a level or an even rail is applied to it and with effort is carried out with the edge of a knife. Having cut the reinforcing layer on the front side, the panel is broken along the formed edge and the mesh is cut on the back side.
Step 3. Start mounting the second row.
The vertical seams in the cover must not match, so the first panel should be cut in half. Spacers are placed between the top and bottom panels so that the width of the seams remains the same over the entire area.
Aquapanels Knauf: installation
Step 4. Near the openings, panels are attached end-to-end with window frames and a window sill ..
. The material should fit snugly on the cuts; the presence of through gaps at the openings is unacceptable.
An example of finishing the facade with water panels
Step 5. After finishing the wall cladding, proceed to the sealing of plaster- adhesive mixture (for example, Bolars ARMIBOND, Osnovit Kaverplix, Knauf-Sevener). The dry composition is diluted in water, mixed thoroughly with a mixer and applied with a spatula along the seams.
The solution is applied in a thick layer, pressing into the gaps between the panels, the excess is removed.
Application of plaster-adhesive mixture
Step 6. Take a reinforcing fiberglass mesh with 3.5x3.5 mm cells, cut it into strips 7-8 cm wide and apply it on top of the mortar so that the seam is centered stripes.
Next, the solution is again recruited with a spatula, applied to the mesh and distributed in an even layer, rubbing well over the surface. The indentations from the caps of the screws are also sealed with a small amount of glue.
Step 7. The corners of the facade, as well as door and window openings, are reinforced with a special corner with a mesh: a solution is applied to the corner on both sides, a corner is applied on top, leveled and pressed into the glue, and the mesh is pressed and smoothed with a spatula.
Finally, the adhesive solution is applied in a continuous thin layer over the entire surface of the skin. Since the solution dries quickly, it is most convenient to process the wall in squares.The glue is applied, leveled, a reinforcing mesh is laid on top and smoothed with a spatula from the center to the edges, sinking the mesh into the solution by 1/3 of the layer thickness. Adjacent pieces of mesh must be overlapped by several centimeters.
After the surface is dry, the walls are treated with a float with an emery cloth.
This will eliminate minor irregularities, drips, spatula marks. Then the dust is swept away with a brush and the facade is primed.
This the stage is the most creative, and therefore requires maximum effort and accuracy. The finished surface should have a texture, color and shallow relief characteristic of concrete. Imitation of roughly processed or aged concrete is inappropriate here, this texture is more suitable for the loft style.
Step 1. Prepare the plaster mixture: mix dry components with water in the proportions indicated on the package, mix the mass at low speed with a mixer until smooth.
Step 2. Collect the composition on a spatula and spread it over the wall in an even layer. The thickness of the application is equal to the thickness of the filler grain.
The spatula is held at the same angle to the surface all the time and the solution is distributed with equal force. Try not to leave traces of the instrument and do not return to areas already covered.
Step 3. When the base layer is dry, knead a new portion of the solution and spread it over the surface in the same way. As soon as the mass begins to set, take a plastic or metal float and form a texture, rubbing the plaster with effort in a circular motion.
Applying decorative plaster
Step 4. After drying, the coating is treated with fine-grained emery paper, cleaned of dust and covered with a special stone varnish or water repellent.
Applying impregnation to decorative plaster
As a result of this treatment, the walls will look like polished concrete, which is fully consistent with the style of minimalism. For contrast, you can highlight the front area in white by painting the surface. If the house is large, there may be several such zones, the main thing is that the allocated zones have a strict rectangular shape.
The effect of concrete on the facade
In the photo, the facade of the house in the style of minimalism , example of finishing with decorative plaster with imitation of concrete
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