Construction of a sewer collector. The sewer collector is a large pipe laid under the surface of the earth, and sewage is removed by gravity through it. But not everyone knows what a city sewage system is, and how the functioning of individual elements is carried out. So let's talk about the construction of sewers.
The city sewage collector is the main canal that collects and diverts wastewater to treatment facilities.
Traditionally, it is laid underground, below the level of freezing of the ground. From an engineering point of view, such a system is only large diameter piping and is larger than the other pipes in the system. We will begin to consider the description of the device from the other end of the system, namely the networks that are connected to houses.
So, first, let's figure out what a sewer comb is. If you think that such strange equipment is absent in your apartment, then you are deeply mistaken.
The device received this name because of the resemblance to a comb or comb. If you look at everything from the outside, then the system really remotely resembles a comb with a handle. In most of the Soviet-built apartments, the bathroom, kitchen and toilet are on the same line. This makes it possible to create simplified sewer networks, which was quite popular in the 20th century, when cast iron pipes were the standard material for creating a pipeline. Today, residents use cast iron everywhere, and prefer plastic products - polypropylene, PVC, and slightly less often polyethylene.
Please note, that during the dismantling of cast iron pipes with your own hands, you may encounter the fact that the joints are compacted due to the sulfur melt. Such connections have to be annealed with a blowtorch or heated with a hair dryer. Please note that during such a process it is worth being in a respirator, since sulfuric fumes are so corrosive that they can even cause respiratory paralysis.
Now a little about the in-house riser. It is part of a system inside a high-rise building and collects wastewater from apartment combs that are located one above the other.
For convenience, revision hatches are built into the risers, which are designed to make it easier to clear blockages (if any).
A prefabricated in-house riser with a hatch is required, the number of revisions is determined according to the instructions contained in SNiP 2. 04.01-85:
At the end of the sewer riser, there is a drain pipe that goes to the roof of the house and helps to provide ventilation to the system.
If you go down to the basement of an apartment building, you can see the sewer plumbing - a horizontal pipe that collects drains from all risers and transfers them to the drain well. It is laid strictly with a mandatory slope so that the likelihood of clogging is excluded.
The slope value will directly depend on the diameter of the pipe used :
|Slope, cm / linear meter||Diameter, cm|
| 0. |
Lezhnevka in a multi-storey building is more susceptible to clogging than others, and for this reason, it also has additional equipment in the form of revision hatches or tees for cleaning ... They should be installed during the construction of collectors:
Revision is very important, as it makes it possible to quickly restore the system's performance.
And, finally, the wastewater from the lodge leaves the "home". In our regions, the outlet is located lower than the level of soil freezing due to natural reasons. Before release, the installation of a revision tee is also required.
The length of the outlet from the bed to the axis of the sewer well will directly depend on the diameter:
|Maximum permissible length||Diameter|
|8 meters||5 cm|
|12 meters||10 cm|
|15 meters||15 and more cm|
Then use plastic comes to naught, since cast iron pipes for such large-scale systems are out of competition, although the cost for them is several times higher.
But in this case, the ring stiffness of cast iron is much more important, since most often the pipe passes under the roadway near the house, and the subsidence of soil that appears from cars does not cause harm.
Important! Cast iron can withstand even seasonal ground movements without any damage.
Such a part of the system as a well, most of us see every morning when we go down and leave the entrance of the house. As a rule, it is folded from rings of reinforced concrete, and inside there are special brackets-steps that make it possible to descend into it. The bottom must have a concrete base, and the lid is usually made of cast iron.
It is interesting that there is an unusual monument in the city of Ussuriisk, which reflects not the simplest relationship between plumbing and sewerage. "Registration" of such hatches opposite the entrances is not a coincidence, since they are located exactly opposite each release. Such wells are connected to each other using a cast-iron pipe with a diameter of 15 cm, which fits according to the level of the day and taking into account the slope in your area.
Please note that wells are the largest accumulation of methane and other gases that are released from the soil and from runoff water. Several people die in them from suffocation every year.
Before going down into the well, you should take care of good ventilation.
By the location of the well, it will be easy to determine the point where pipes exit from the basement of the house.
In addition to the main wells, the sewer branches will be equipped with additional inspection compartments, and their location will fully depend on the pipe diameter:
|Maximum permissible distance between two wells||Diameter|
|35 meters||15 cm|
|50 meters||20 to 45 cm|
|75 meters||50 to 60 cm|
And now we come to the finishing of the sewer system, where a person can fit in full growth. In this case, we are talking about underground canals, which move the wastewater of the microdistricts to the district's treatment facilities. It is in this place that the docking of the collector and sewage system of the whole area takes place.
The movement of wastewater is most often carried out by gravity. Canals can be built from:
During the construction of a sewer collector, each connection between the collector and the sewer is equipped with the same inspection hatch, since it makes it possible to quickly clean the supply pipes and analyze the condition of the collector as a whole. Due to the difficulties and relief on the ground, when the movement of sewage by gravity is not possible, the system is installing a pressure type collector in the sewer. In order to equip it, they use polyethylene pressure pipes and powerful pumps for feces.
Please note, that there is a danger in using special devices, since in case of any accident on the sewer due to pressure surges, the city streets will be flooded with stench. Naturally, gravity-flow pipes with unexpected depressurization will not lead to similar consequences.
Now it's worth saying a little about diggers and other fans of exploring underground communications - why they are so drawn to visit underground tunnels? There is no single and correct answer to this, since young people are attracted by romance and adrenaline from what is happening, the desire to be in a forbidden and unknown place. Fantasy lovers want to imitate literary heroes, while more mundane and selfish people are interested in the opportunity to find something valuable and sell. But nevertheless, it should be borne in mind that in case of danger, it is very rarely possible to leave such a tunnel quickly.
Do not forget that it is very difficult to get out of such places to the surface, as many dangerous situations can arise:
Pay attention, that it is very easy for an ignorant person who got inside for the first time to get lost.
Such cases, unfortunately, are not at all uncommon, and everything did not always end well.
Usually all tragic cases occur due to the fact that the rules and safety requirements are not followed. Such rules are collected in a document called "Interdisciplinary rules on labor protection in the use of water supply and sewage facilities" and are intended for those professionals (primarily) who are directly involved in the repair and use of tanks and sewer wells.
In this document, which not only talks about the construction of collectors, in section 5.2 there is a mandatory list of devices and means (this can include measuring devices that each member of the team should have) that should during the launch into the manhole, use emergency control tanks, sewer collectors and pressure drained water conduits.
Here are some lines from the list:
This is the most basic, and should always be with the master.
Yes, the sewerage collector is a complex structure of hydraulic engineering type, and sometimes whole rivers flow in it. Usually they are used to remove sewage, but there are other sewer collectors, for example, storm sewers, and melt and rainwater enter them. Such highways penetrate the city completely. In autonomous systems, an aerotank or septic tank is used as a collector. Household effluent enters such tanks for cleaning, and then everything is pumped out or dumped into the soil.
Private developers choose sewer collectors for external systems, depending on what mode of residence, daily consumption rate family water. There are even stations for biological treatment, septic tanks for two people, and for a whole cottage village. Anaerobic tanks do not require electrical energy and are therefore considered suitable for temporary or seasonal use.
There is no equipment inside them, and therefore there is simply nothing to break. With good sealing of the inlet line, they can even serve for tens of years if the dirt is pumped out of the sump on time.
The efficiency of such structures is not higher than 78%, and the rest of the cleaning takes place in the ground. At the outlet, the water is clarified, but it cannot be used for domestic needs.
Manifold for storm sewer
Plastic sealed reservoir is ideal for a collector of storm sewer.
Due to the fact that there are no black and gray drains, no cleaning is required, and after normal settling, the water simply becomes lighter, and then it can be pumped out and used for:
Since the temperature of the drains in the system is the same as outside, the tank should be deepened lower than the level of freezing of the soil or insulated with expanded polystyrene / stone wool. In the role of a pumping out pump, you can use a surface, submersible or semi-submersible model of the device from any manufacturer.
Collector for the drainage system of the sewerage
For the drain collector, even a septic tank made of concrete rings, made by hand, is suitable.
By itself, such a structure is heavy enough to withstand the heaving force, and not to float when the water table rises, and for plastic modifications, anchoring to the anchor is required. To do this, you can use a homemade or ready-made reinforced concrete slab for the base, and attach the tank to it with clamps.The water in it is clean and suitable for domestic use, which will pay off the costs of creating drainage.
So, the acquaintance with the sewerage system can be considered completed and completed. As usual, the video from the article will help you learn and see even more interesting things.
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