When planning the purchase of a country house, cottage or choosing a place to build a private house, first of all, you should ask about the quality of water in the selected area.
It is recommended to get along with neighbors, and then they will tell you how heavily polluted the soil is, whether the water from the well is clean, and what investments will be required to properly clean water from the well. Areas with clean drinking water under the well are sold out like hot cakes. It is believed that this is the most successful and environmentally friendly place for a private home. In suburban settlements and new buildings, accurate and thorough water purification from a well is almost always required.
And for accurate and thorough cleaning, water treatment of water from wells is required.
Including how well the location is chosen for well and whether it is properly prepared for operation. Usually, specialists will drill a well and transfer it to you on a turnkey basis. Your task is to equip the base, the caisson, clean it, pump out some of the water and dirt, and only then it will become clear how difficult it will be to purify the water.
The quality of water from a well can be independently determined only approximately, for example, to see turbidity or the presence of odor, but this will still not be enough.
In order to design your borehole water treatment system, you will need to know the content, composition, water pollutants of the well:
The simplest analysis of well water for salt, hardness and turbidity for several indicators can be done independently in Rospotrebnadzor (cost about 3000 rubles). A more in-depth study of water by 22 parameters will cost 10 thousand rubles. This study will allow us to judge the quality of water at a level sufficient for planning a water treatment system from a well.
All the above water analyzes will not contain information about two components - water bacteriology and presence / absence of radioactive substances.
A complete survey of water is carried out by Rospotrebnadzor for water treatment systems for wells of collective water supply enterprises, but if desired, for 30 thousand rubles, it is possible to make a survey, consisting of 60 points in accordance with the Water Quality Protocol, in private.
The presence of pollutants in water intake sources is carried out under the influence of a number of factors, such as natural processes, man-made and economic factors, as well as disruption of work.
Wells are surface sources and therefore often receive external contamination.Among them are various household and agricultural chemicals, oil products and other components that appear on the soil surface and are washed out by precipitation. In addition, wells are often contaminated with organic matter washed out from the layers above.
Such water can contain bacteria and tiny algae.
All this leads to the fact that the water from the well must be purified as thoroughly as possible. When choosing a well location for water supply, it is necessary to take into account some facts. For example, well water has certain inclusions. In the absence of surface contamination, the risk of the presence of derivatives of these contaminants in water is significantly reduced.
It should also be borne in mind that there are many more different dissolved minerals in such water. Water enters the underground horizons by penetrating through the strata of rocks. Along the way, it gradually dissolves a lot of mineral salts. The specific composition depends on the geological characteristics of the rocks in a particular area. This is taken into account when drilling.
Further water purification is carried out using a silicon-polymer film and a membrane, only for drinking water production. This water is hardly pleasant to drink or especially tasty, but it is guaranteed to be safe for the body.
A full-fledged water purification and water purification of wells in a private house is quite expensive, therefore, when designing a system, it is advisable to use a scheme with parallel use of the reverse flow of water.
For example, at a water treatment plant, most of the water flow from the well entering the device, using membrane osmosis, is transferred to a water stream with a high concentration of calcium and sodium ions.
That is, the membrane actually divides the water flow into two during water purification. One of them is especially pure drinking water, the second, the so-called return water with a high concentration of substances. Due to the fact that, reaching the osmosis filter, the water is almost completely freed from lime, parts of magnesium and calcium sulfates, which are responsible for hardness, then after water purification through the osmotic filter, the return water returns quite clean. This water should not be drunk, but it is allowed to be used for domestic needs, toilet or washing equipment.
To choose the correct cleaning method and filter, you need to find out what elements are in the water.
Chemical analysis can help with this.It reveals not only the qualitative, but also the quantitative composition. The presence of any substances in small quantities (below the norm) does not harm human health. It is necessary to exclude only those inclusions, the number of which exceeds the maximum permissible values.
Currently, there are no filters that can effectively deal with all contamination at the same time and immediately.
For each song, you need to select devices separately. One permanent and indispensable component of the filtration system is the mechanical cleaning device. Devices for aeration, removal of dissolved iron and other easily oxidizing components, as well as installations for disinfection. The rest of the filtering equipment is selected individually.
The water treatment system is designed and installed taking into account the individual characteristics of the water in the well.
The most common set consists of the following equipment:
A very capricious device that requires a very thorough water purification of the water supply before passing through this filter.
It is additionally recommended to install an internal or intermediate filter in each part of the system, designed to find harmful elements that have got from the filter cavity into the general water flow.
For example, it is impossible to use an ultraviolet disinfector without an outlet filter, since dead microflora in the water stream will clog the zeolite prefilter and, in fact, the ion-exchange membrane itself in a matter of minutes.
The device name indicates its purpose in the water treatment system. The filter consists of a body, into which a cartridge is inserted, made in the form of an accordion of propylene "fleecy" fabric.
Such a filter purifies water from microparticles of clay, earth and other large elements in the composition of water.
One of the most famous of these designs is a filter tank filled with calcite grits and sand.The advantage of such a device is simplicity and the ability to wash the filter element of the water treatment. Approximately every 6 months, depending on the contamination of the water in the well, the sand is changed, and the cereals are washed in a concrete mixer or replaced. It is recommended to rinse any of the filter options with clean water as often as possible.
One of the removal of heavy metals during water treatment is a difficult task. In the water of wells, there are heavy metals in the form of weak acid ions. To remove lead, arsenic, antimony, air is blown through a stream of water. In this operation, heavy metals are oxidized to the highest oxidation state and precipitated in the form of heavy brown flakes. Thus, water is purified from hydrogen sulfide, methane, readily soluble ethylene in water.
Aerobic water purification should be used only if the well is located on a swamp. A high content of hydrogen sulfide indicates an excess of iron in the water of the well, therefore, during blowing, a comprehensive purification of water from several types of contaminants is achieved.
If there is an unpleasant odor in the water, turbidity, which is not eliminated by simple filtration through a 10 cm layer of sand, then the water flow will need to be oxidized with additional reagents, for example, an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide. Both provide a very good level of water treatment, but the water must pass through the zeolite filter damper.
One of the most effective methods of water purification is the use of special coagulating reagents based on aluminum and silicon salts.
Only a small amount of reagents, dissolved in water in a ratio of 1: 6, coagulates almost all salts and microorganisms in the whitish sediment. Therefore, water is prepared for technical purposes, for example, for washing water purification systems, which should preferably be carried out privately in the house, at least once a year. In addition, aluminum salts in water have a depressing effect on the human nervous system.
The best organoleptic characteristics of water from wells in limestone and marl rocks. Odorless, clean and pleasant to the taste, this water requires very serious water treatment due to the high concentration of calcium and magnesium salts.
To exclude an excess of magnesium and calcium ions from water, dry reagents, magnetic treatment or water treatment with membranes based on acetylated viscose and cellulose are used. Also, in addition, filtration through carbon or zeolite blocks is used. With the help of filters based on ion-exchange membranes, it is possible to reduce the salt content in water by 5-7 times, however, with a high concentration of magnesium, they very quickly begin to deteriorate.
To reduce the load on calcium-magnesium ions, electromagnetic water filters are often used in water treatment.After purification, most of the salts get in the form of suspensions and are easily filtered, after which the water can be treated on a filter with reverse osmosis membranes.
After removing the maximum part of salts and ions, the water is disinfected, for example, by dissolving a small amount of ozone or irradiating with ultraviolet light using special lamps. After such a procedure, it is absolutely safe to drink and cook food with it. But at this level of water purification, there is still a small amount of residual salts, therefore, reverse osmosis is used to maximize the purification of the cartridges. Partially the water after cleaning with a filter contains a high concentration of salts, therefore it is used only for technical purposes.
But, even after cleaning through a reverse osmosis membrane, at the end of the water treatment the water is not ideal.
The taste of the water is given by a metal similar to distilled. Therefore, to give the water the taste and acidity we are all used to, some filters use special salt additives.
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