How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video

How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video Stove heating is perhaps a real classic for cold Russia. It is a pity that recently it has been considered only as an alternative to central, gas or electric heating. But a good stove equipped with a water heating circuit will provide residents of the house not only with cozy heat, but also with hot water for various needs.

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Wood stoves for home heating: advantages and disadvantages

How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video A traditional fireplace or conventional stove heats the air in a room using convection and radiative heat exchange. Thick stove walls give off thermal energy to the environment, heating both furnishings and the air in the room.

Gradually the place of cold air is taken by warm.

Stove heating has a lot of undeniable advantages:

  • of all types of heat exchange, radiation is especially comfortable. This is the only way of heat exchange in which the heat carrier is not directly involved;
  • does not need gas and electrical communications. The fuel required for heating is quite affordable, fairly cheap, and environmentally friendly;
  • In the warm season, an oversized stone stove provides a kind of air conditioning for the room. Having its own foundation, with its help it can remove excess heat into the ground;
  • most of the stoves are capable of performing different functions - heating the room, cooking food, heating water;
  • a fireplace or stove is created in the dwelling has a particularly warm and cozy atmosphere, often determining the general style of the house;

But, along with the advantages, heating by the stove also has some disadvantages: How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video

  • inertia - any brick stove needs a certain amount of time to enter the operating mode and warm up well.

    But cast iron products, fireplace stoves, buleryan and potbelly stoves are relieved of this shortcoming;

  • dimensions - the heating power of the furnace is directly related to its value;
  • low efficiency, explained by large heat losses. A lot of heat energy escapes with smoke into the chimney;
  • uneven temperature distribution in the dwelling. Cold air in the room is gradually replaced by warm air, but not evenly enough.It is usually too hot near the stove, and at a distance from it it can be quite cool;
  • the stove can only heat the room adjacent to it, therefore, in rooms remote from it, an additional heating device is needed; 29> the device requires virtually constant maintenance: it is necessary to periodically throw fuel into it, maintain active combustion, clean chimneys and ash pits from debris and soot, control and regulate draft;
  • complexity of maintenance - the combustion process must be controlled, this is a fairly responsible task;
  • the presence of excellent traction - it is simply necessary for the combustion process and the timely removal of gas waste;
  • fuel supply - the fuel supply must be constantly renewed. Ash and slag must be removed;
  • fire hazard - in order to secure the heating device, the chimneys must be carefully insulated.

    This is especially true for buildings made of wood. Another factor of increased danger is the impossibility of immediate termination of combustion.

Oven with water circuit: advantages

How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video One conventional stove cannot provide the same heating of all premises in a dwelling.

In modern fireplaces and stoves, this drawback is partially eliminated: a special convection chamber is arranged, connected to the air duct system. The flow of hot air outgoing from the heated furnace is not directed anywhere - its movement through the pipes is regulated by gratings, valves, dampers and other devices.

But these channels are quite cumbersome and take up the necessary useful space. The greater their length and the number of turns, the higher the possible heat loss. Air ducts need control and regular maintenance, cleaning from soot, dust and soot. Air has a very low intrinsic heat capacity, therefore, in order to warm a room far from the heat source, forced ventilation is needed.

For this reason, water is in many ways preferable to air as a heat carrier .

The heated liquid is perfectly transported through non-thick pipes, and is capable of transferring heat over a considerable distance. In addition, it is a completely harmless, non-toxic, non-flammable, chemically neutral and absolutely accessible substance.

Heating stove with water circuit: operating principle

How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video Heating water circuit has a fairly simple principle of operation. Water, which is a heat carrier, heats up during fuel combustion, then moves through pipes, carrying and giving off heat, thereby raising the temperature of the surrounding air.

The prototype of most modern wood-burning stoves and solid fuel boilers is the familiar Swedish stove.

Its design has a built-in metal reservoir, which is filled with water before kindling and filling fuel. Of course, water heats up for a long time during the combustion process.

But for the same long time it radiates heat into space : even after a considerable time after the end of the furnace and the flame is extinguished. Over time, the tank was gradually transformed into a heat exchanger, thanks to which a system of highways began to be used for hot water supply and home heating.

Furnace with water heating: construction

How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video An obligatory element of any heating furnace with a water circuit, a heat exchanger is considered, otherwise called a boiler, coil or radiator.

Such a device is capable of heating fairly large volumes of water quickly enough. The shape of the tank and its dimensions depend on the dimensions of the combustion chamber: they can vary quite significantly.

In some models of heating stoves, such a heat exchanger can be placed in the firebox, but this method is fraught with the possibility of water leakage, and in the worst case, an explosion when water overheats and a large amount of steam is generated. In addition, the use of this method reduces the useful volume of the combustion chamber.

It is much more convenient and safer to build the coil into the chimney hood.

With such a device, a significant part of the hot air rising from the furnace will heat the coolant, and not be thrown out through the pipe into the atmosphere.

Water heating stove: calculation of the dimensions and power of the heat exchanger

The independent implementation of all necessary calculations for the size and power of the heat exchanger is a rather difficult task for non-specialists. But to make a rough estimate is usually quite possible on their own.

Experience shows that for ten squares of house area (with a ceiling height of 2.5-2.

7 meters), 1-1.2 kW of heating power is required.

How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video An ordinary home wood-burning stove regenerates about 6.5 thousand kcal per hour, which is quite sufficient to heat medium the size of the country house. The mere presence of a water circuit doubles the comfort indicators.

First, it is necessary to calculate the heat loss, after which you can proceed to determining the power of the heat exchanger directly.

Indicators of heat removal from one square meter of its S (area) range from five to ten kW. Finding the required power is based on this position. There is no need to master complex formulas yourself. It is much more convenient to contact professionals who, using the available tables, will determine the optimal dimensions of the heat exchanger for the customer's furnace.

Moreover, they will do this in strict accordance with the parameters of the building and the heating system available in it.

The device of the furnace with water heating: the materials used

Before proceeding with the choice of the design of the future heat exchanger of our furnace, it is necessary to decide on the material for its manufacture. Various options can be used.

  • Cast iron .Radiators made of this material are extremely resistant to corrosion, but they have some fragility.

    Possible thermal deformations formed during heating and cooling can cause defects and cracks leading to damage to the register itself (heat exchanger). How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video

  • Copper . This material has one of the best thermal conductivity indicators, so a coil made of it must be very effective. But its melting point is only 1083 degrees, and in the firebox, in the event of an emergency situation, it may well reach the full 1200 degrees. It is for this reason that it is strictly forbidden to use copper for the firebox of the stove.

    In addition, when such a circuit is cooled, condensation can form, which contains aggressive chemicals. They can cause corrosion.

  • Steel . Wonderful material, quite affordable and easy to work with. For the manufacture of a coil, it is best to use heat-resistant steel three to five centimeters thick, in the form of special seamless pipes.

    It is desirable to provide the system with such a combustion mode in which the minimum amount of condensate will form. The coolant must not be drained, since products made of steel are highly susceptible to corrosion.

  • Heat-resistant stainless steel . The best material for a radiator, but at the same time the most expensive.

The optimum steel for making a coil is AISI 304.

To work with it, you will need argon welding and laser cutting for metal.

Brick ovens with water heating: construction

How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video Depending on the used materials, the heat exchanger can be made of metal sheets, rectangular shaped or round pipes, or combinations thereof. The installation method and location of this element will depend on its shape.

  • Sheet steel product. Such a device can be placed in a combustion chamber, that is, in the hottest place.

    For its manufacture, you will need thick sheets of steel (3-4 mm) and pipes for connecting the mains (40-50 mm) - return and supply. To avoid the formation of dangerous steam locks, the water supply pipe must be at the top of the coil. The penetration of a steam plug into the heating system can cause a water hammer that can destroy radiators and pipes. The internal clearance in the heat exchanger must be at least 30 mm so that the water does not boil in it.

  • Product made of pipes.

    For its manufacture, you will need rectangular shaped pipes 6 * 6 or 4 * 6 cm, or round 4 * 5 cm in diameter. It can be placed in the firebox, provided it does not contain copper. In general, the decision on its location depends on the furnace design. It must be ensured that it does not obstruct the chimney ducts, the fuel addition door and the grate.In a heating and cooking furnace, the heat exchanger pipes must be laid along the sides of the walls of the combustion chamber.

  • Tubular flat register. Such devices are usually mounted in a stove hood or in chimney ducts, where conditions are milder, and under them the radiator can last longer than directly in the firebox. They are of considerable size and are located in places with low heat output. The design parameters must be calculated in advance so that there are no obstacles for the escape of gases and smoke.

Installation of heating water stoves

How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video Heat exchanger must be installed exclusively in an oven designed for this model.

The instructions confirm the importance of adhering to existing rules and the need for a professional stove-maker to be involved in the installation.

  • After manufacturing, the heat exchanger is pressurized twice: before and after it is placed in the furnace;
  • The coil must be installed immediately after the manufacture of the furnace foundation, and then they begin laying;
  • It is highly undesirable to embed the heat exchanger in the masonry itself. A gap of one to one and a half centimeters is required between the walls and this element: it will compensate for the expansion when heated.
  • The gap when installing pipes should be about 5 mm in size: it is filled with some kind of heat-resistant seal, for example, an asbestos cord.
  • At the outlet, the pipe section should be no shorter than 10-15 centimeters.

    If the thread is damaged, it will be possible to make a new one.

  • A special heat-resistant seal is used to connect the heat exchanger and heating pipes.
  • The reconstruction of the furnace and the installation of the water circuit are exclusively carried out by a specialist.

Fireplace stove with a water circuit: operation

For the heating system to work smoothly and without accidents, it is important to observe the necessary operating rules:

How is a furnace with a water circuit for heating a house with your own hands arranged: Step-by-step instructions + Video

  • The heat exchanger (while the oven is running) must not be disconnected from the heating system. As the water heats up, it expands greatly, and the increased pressure in the system can cause an explosion.

  • Do not operate an oven if the heat exchanger is not full. It can burn out quickly.
  • It is not recommended to supply ice water to the heated heat exchanger. Deformation from changes in temperature can damage the device.
  • To increase the working efficiency of the system, a special circulating sediment is used.

  • Antifreezes are used in the water heater circuit if necessary.
  • The obligatory water drain valve is usually installed at the lowest point of the heating system.

Oven with water heating: disadvantages

Are there any disadvantages of such a heating system at home?

They are, and they are mainly associated with the characteristics and properties of water, that is, the heat carrier used. Turning into ice at zero degrees, the substance reaches its maximum volume at -4 ° C.

This expansion of the frozen water in the pipes may cause them to burst.

To prevent this from happening, it is advisable to pour a special antifreeze into the system in cold weather. Or to drain the water from the system in severe frosts, if it is not even temporarily operated. Strict adherence to the rules for operating a home water stove will save you from possible mistakes, and will help neutralize shortcomings.

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