Individual housing construction and renovation of old premises force the owners of residential premises to independently delve into the technological process of electrical work of their property. This makes it possible to make an individual electrical system for the needs of the owner, and not use typical schemes for standard consumers.
Now we will figure out how to assemble an electrical panel - machines and cables.
An electrical or distribution board is a complete apparatus that performs the function of a receiver and distributor electricity with a voltage of 1000 Volts (single-phase and three-phase alternating current), with a frequency of fifty to six Hertz, and also serves as protection against overloads and short circuits.
Simply put, a household switchboard is necessary for the introduction and distribution of electric current, creating safety in residential premises. For an ordinary person who is not versed in electricity, this is a box with an electric meter, wires and other elements inside. It is not clear on what principle everything is collected there and for what it is needed.
The distribution-accounting panel is assembled as follows:
If you are not sure of your strengths and capabilities, then these works should be left to an experienced electrician. Any mistake will cost you the destruction of all electrical and household appliances. But you can still do the installation of the electrical panel with your own hands.
The automatic input machine and the electricity meter must be installed only by employees of a specialized company, after which you can continue with your own installation. If you adhere to the rules and regulations at the same time, then everything will work out.
Before assembling the shield, it will not be superfluous to familiarize yourself with the requirements of GOST 51321 and GOST 32397-2013. After assembly and installation, representatives of the power company should be invited to check and measure the ground loop at start-up.
In order for the assembly of the panel to be carried out correctly, a wiring project is required, which will indicate all the needs of the consumer for each room, indicate how many and where lighting fixtures and switches will be located. The project also optimizes the route of other systems: Internet networks, telephone, antenna, alarm, heating and water supply pipelines.
Note: The objective of the project is to determine a more convenient location for the electrical switchboard.
Now mount the steel shield inside the room at the front door. This arrangement tries to shorten the length of the supply cable. For a more comfortable use of the electrical panel, its height should be installed at the eye level of an adult.Thus, it is more convenient to take readings of the electricity meter and turn off unused consumers when leaving the room.
When installing the shield in the private sector, you should consider where and how the supply line will be supplied, whether it will be an overhead line or an underground cable.
All this must be coordinated with the power supply organization. It is not necessary to carry out the device of the electrical panel close to the ceiling, as was done before.
Unlike old models of meters with fuses without a drawer, modern shields are equipped with a fairly reliable case, which prevents them from being entered by children.
There are several variations of the electrical panel assembly. In suburban households, the usual location of the electric meter is the power transmission line supports and other fixed structures, and the introductory machine is on the house wall.
In residential high-rise buildings, meters are arranged on each floor in the hall. Here in the shield will be located only ouzo and a machine gun. At the moment there is an opportunity to buy a ready-made fully equipped electrical panel. They are assembled at factories, to order and according to a standard project.
Note: You need to choose a flap in size to accommodate all the elements in it and taking into account the margin for creating additional power lines.
Safety must not be neglected, depending on the RCD installed after the electricity meter. This device starts to work when leaks occur. The RCD breaks the circuit, nullifying possible electrical shock.
It is necessary that all electrical appliances in the house work smoothly. The design of modern devices, controlled by microprocessors, is not simple and requires stable voltage operation.
Having checked which, you can detect its surges in the range from one hundred and fifty to two hundred and eighty volts. High-tech modern electronics cannot stand this. And for the long-term operation of equipment, the feeding machines should be connected through a stabilizing device. With such voltage surges in devices and equipment, control boards fail. Replacing such a board is not a cheap pleasure.
Due to its impressive dimensions, the voltage stabilizer is installed close to the shield. It is connected after the protective device. The shield also contains 2 buses, 1 for grounding, the other for neutralization. The first is connected to grounding wires from electrical appliances. At 0, marked with N, a wire from the protective device is suitable.
Note: In the wiring drawing, it is assumed that "0" is blue wires, "ground" is indicated using white or yellow, and phase is red.
Methods of connecting machines: with conductor 0 or using a connected comb.
There are schemes simple and complicated. The second ones with numerous consuming elements, have a connection with a lower power ouzo for each group, which is divided by floor, establish an individual output to outbuildings, the local area and other things.
As a rule, the most unsafe room in the house is the bathroom, which must have a separate power outlet with a protective device.
It is also obligatory to install an RCD on terminals for household appliances with a power of two and a half kilowatts. Together with a stabilizing device, they will give the optimal voltage value and conditions for the use of technology.
Advice: When assembling an electrical switchboard, do not use cheap components. After all, this is, first of all, human security.
Cabinets for automation are external and internal.
The first are placed on the wall of the house. A non-conductive insulating material is arranged under it.
The installed outdoor electrical cabinet protrudes eighteen centimeters above the wall surface. To avoid injury, it should be installed behind doors or close to wall corners. Internal or hidden flaps are installed at the bottom of the wall surface, while their door is flush with the wall.
Shield box is made of:
Cabinet sizes are different - square or rectangular.
For self-assembly of the panel and simplification of work in it, make a large cabinet. You also need to take into account all single-pole machines installed in it. The project contains all the information about the number of component parts that need to be calculated and add 20% for a possible increase in the power grid.
At present, all the components of the electrical distribution board are produced with standard mountings.
The elements are connected in the following sequence:
Important: All work is carried out exclusively with the power off.
Memo: For safety, an earth ground must be installed.
When assembling the device with its own hand, the power supply company is obliged to seal the energy meter and the input machine. To avoid complete sealing of the entire flap, a separate box for the input machine should be installed inside, i.e. to.otherwise, it is not possible to install a seal on the vending machine (unlike an electric meter).
The comb connection does not raise any questions, and when connecting using jumpers, there are two methods:
- The wire is cut to the required dimensions, stripped edges and bend them in an arc. The ends of two jumpers are inserted into one contact and pulled;
- On a large piece of wire with a step of 4-5 centimeters, remove one and a half centimeters of the insulating layer. Bend the stripped wire sections with an arc. Place the stripped areas in contacts and tighten.
The jumper connection is not very high quality, it is better to use the connecting busbars, which are installed in the machine body using special connectors. Tires are sold by meter and cut to length. By connecting the supply wire to the first machine and installing the busbars, tighten all the contacts of the connected elements. At the output of the machine, a "phase" is connected, which goes to the load of the electrical network.
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