Of course, an inexpensive, warm monolithic reinforced concrete house is the ultimate dream of any owner. There are different types of fixed formwork structures, but, despite the differences, the principle of construction with their use is the same. From blocks, like from Lego, the box of the house is built, reinforced with reinforcement and filled with mortar.
Fixed formwork made of expanded polystyrene has earned popularity due to its low price and high consumer qualities:
But, in direct sunlight, it turns yellow and emits harmful substances.
Therefore, external and internal cladding in such a house is required. The first can be any (siding, brick, plaster). For the second, use drywall, lining or plaster.
Expanded polystyrene has high thermal insulation properties. The concrete frame gives it strength, and the expanded polystyrene protects the concrete from all sides and minimizes the temperature drops of the bearing wall, which prevents the concrete from cracking.
Granular polystyrene they are poured into a foaming hopper, where, with constant stirring, they are foamed with steam of the required temperature and pressure. The granules are enlarged and fed into the aging hopper for 24 - 48 hours to stabilize the pressure and shape of the granules. From there, the polystyrene is fed into a press mold, where, when processed with steam, the volume of the granules is further increased. The granules interact, fill the voids, and "weld". After the mold is cooled with water, the finished blocks are removed and stored.
The blocks are delivered ready-made for construction.
In shape, polystyrene foam blocks are of the following types:
By the principle, the blocks are very similar to the Lego constructor, there are special locks on top and bottom of them. When the blocks are connected to each other, the convex elements of one block enter the valleys of the other.
As usual, everything starts from the foundation.
A monolithic slab on a cushion of gravel and sand is optimal. Arrangement of a shallow, strip, monolithic foundation is possible.
Laying of blocks begins on a leveled foundation. They are placed on the foundation, putting them on the reinforcement outlets in places where it is necessary to erect walls. The installation of the blocks starts from the corners.
Between the rows, in the grooves of the blocks, horizontal and vertical reinforcement is made, which give the reinforced concrete wall maximum strength. Connect the reinforcement with knitting wire.
After installing the first three rows, concrete is poured into the cavity. The wall made of expanded polystyrene blocks is sealed and has no cracks. Until the concrete has hardened, it is compacted so that no air pockets remain inside.
All pipes and cables are walled up into the wall, blocks with plugs are used in the openings, and for forming the top of the opening, a temporary formwork is installed, which is removed after the concrete has set.
The structure filled with concrete is a 0.15 m monolithic reinforced concrete wall covered on both sides with 0.05 - 0.1 m insulation.
Overlappings between floors and expanded polystyrene can be made of wood or concrete. For concrete, a special formwork is used, on which a monolithic reinforced concrete floor is made. In the inner wall of the formwork, a cut is made, where reinforcement is brought in and cement is poured. The cut is made so that the top layer remains, which is necessary for joining the wall blocks.
The second floor is being built, reinforced and concreted according to the same scheme.
Walls are sheathed from the outside and from the inside, or covered with plaster.
More than half of the materials for construction presented on the market are harmful to our health. Foam plastic, which is one of them, is actively used in construction. You should be aware that when burning for a long time, the material emits dark smoke.
If expanded polystyrene burns and releases toxins into the house, then a person can take just two breaths.
The third leads to loss of consciousness and death. The respiratory system is paralyzed by the poisonous gas fasgen.
Facts show that:
We all remember the nightmare in Lame Horse. In a matter of minutes, 155 out of 300 people died from poisoning. And the next day, experts worked at the scene for several hours, who also received respiratory tract poisoning. The area of the fire in the Lame Horse was several meters. 155 people died from poisonous smoke caused by the combustion of styrofoam.
This material has recently been presented at construction exhibitions, both in Russia and abroad ... It is comfortable, suitable for quick construction and retains heat well.But in the event of a fire, you may encounter the above problem.
The actions of scientists aimed at drawing attention to the harm of this material and to prohibit its use in residential construction have so far been unsuccessful.
Often people don't even know how harmful the use of such materials is. And in pursuit of profit, some developers run counter to their conscience, wanting to build faster and sell more profitably. Styrofoam manufacturers understand this and still produce hazardous materials.
What to do if such a house has already been built:
Make the finest quality thick and layered interior trim. You can even build an interior brick wall.
Styrofoam can turn your life into a nightmare, as it releases benzene compounds (heavy poisonous poisons) that are very harmful. Remember that the interior decoration of the house absolutely should not be carried out by them.
It is scientifically proven that benzene affects the possible deformities of an infant during pregnancy.
Experts of the Russian Research Center for Fire Safety have proven that, in terms of their toxicity, foams are highly hazardous. They spread easily over long distances, and can cause suffocation not only for you, but also for neighbors.
The release of poisonous smoke into the atmosphere during the combustion of expanded polystyrene not only poisons the health of people and animals, but also poses a global environmental threat.
In our century, building materials often include an expanded and supplemented periodic table.
Whether to use such materials for the construction and repair of your home - decide for yourself. Remember that your well-being depends on it.
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