How to make a water analysis at home? Most of us know that a person should drink at least 2 liters of water per day, while it must be clean and free of impurities. How to check the water that we drink at home?
In this article you will find all the ways.
From time to time, the quality of the consumed water should be checked, as this all affects the condition human health.
If we talk about official norms, then according to SanPiN 2. 1.
4. 1074-01 there are such indicators:
3, manganese up to 0.1, surfactant no more than 0.5.
These are not all standards that must be taken into account when checking the quality indicators of water. The total number of standards is slightly less than 1000, and it is on them that one should be guided, which is what specialists in laboratories do.
Typically, the liquid comes from rivers. After that, it is subjected to several stages of purification: mechanical filtration and purification with sand, after which disinfection is carried out. Only then can the water be piped.
Perhaps cleaning before supplying to the water supply helps to make the water better, but everything is clouded when the water put into the system begins to reach its owners - along the way, they collect all the contaminants that have accumulated in the pipes. It is high time to change pipes in Russia, as the water, which is polluted because of them, negatively affects health.
It may cause the following health problems:
The best way would be a laboratory study, and for this you need to take a sample .
.. But there is another way, namely the analysis of water at home.
With the help of organoleptic indicators, you can determine whether it is really possible to use tap water for cooking or not.
The analysis can be carried out using the senses, namely the sense of smell and sight:
Ideally, it should be a clear liquid without any hint of color, but if it has a color (greenish, bluish, brownish), it means that there are chemical components in the water. There should be no sediment! Also see how cloudy the water is. The water from the springs and the well is a little cloudy, as it contains iron and salts, but the tap water, suitable for drinking, must be clear.
It is also unacceptable to use water with grassy, swampy and putrid odors for drinking and cooking.
Good, clean water tastes refreshing.
These are three organoleptic indicators by which you can independently analyze. Thus, you can check liquid from any source.
There is an equally effective method for home water analysis. Take a clean glass or mirror and apply a drop of water to it.
Wait for the surface to dry. After that, you should evaluate the result - if the mirror is clean, then there are no salts and impurities in the water, and if there are traces and stains, then the water is not suitable for drinking.
It is also possible to carry out the test while at home by boiling. To do this, arm yourself with a clean saucepan, pour water into it, put it on the stove and boil. Next, wait for the water to boil for 11 to 15 minutes.
Next, you need to drain the water - this is necessary in order to assess the condition of the walls of the dishes. If a light yellow sediment remains on it, this will be an indicator of the presence of calcium salts in the water. In the case when there is a lot of iron oxide in the water, the resulting precipitate will turn dark gray.
You can also test the water hardness of the mains water. You should wash your hands or boil the kettle again - if the soap does not foam well under the stream, and a lot of scale immediately appears in the kettle, then the water is hard.
You can also boil a kettle and brew black tea, and then add raw water to the strong drink. If the tea immediately turns peach in color, then the liquid is clear, and if it becomes cloudy, then the water is of poor quality.
Another easy way is to dial in a bottle of water, close the lid and hide in a dark place for literally a few days. After that, you can take out the bottle and evaluate the result. With good water quality, there will be no plaque or sediment in the container.
It is also important that there is no film on the surface. If there is even one principle, water quality can no longer be considered good.
Since chemical analysis of water at home is not possible, another simple method will help you. Draw 100 ml of liquid from the tap, and then dilute a little potassium permanganate in water. After that, pour some water into another glass to check the quality.
Next, mix the liquids and watch the reaction. If the water turns pink, you can drink the water, but if it turns yellow, it is better to refuse.
Unlikely, but still - if you have Unionidae clams at home, you will be able to perform a water quality check with them. If they start to close their sink when they are in the tested liquid, then there are foreign impurities in it.
Please note that all home methods will give only an approximate result, and you can get accurate data only in the laboratory.
All the required analyzes will be carried out there, and you will receive all the necessary information on them.
To carry out an express analysis, there is a special set and even devices to determine the quality of water in a couple of minutes. As a rule, they are small enough and easily fit even in a backpack, which is convenient when hiking. In ph-testers for water there are special litmus papers that are impregnated with compounds. When placed in water, they react with water and show one of several colors.
Based on the obtained color and shade, it is possible to determine the presence / absence and amount of identified components.
There are other assay kits that contain vials of chemical reagents. To obtain results, fill the container with water, add a little reagent and observe the reaction, which will manifest itself as a change in the color of the water and its consistency. After that, you must not drink water with added reagents.
Use the following kits for analysis:
Helps to identify and determine the amount of salts, acidity and the presence of chlorine.
This kit is used to determine the amount of aluminum and iron impurities. It also helps to establish the presence of several types of nitrates.
All these home water analysis kits can be used independently, as there is always instructions for use inside.
It is very important that the liquid meets all the norms of SanPiN 2. 1. 4. 1074-01, since it is according to them that water quality control is carried out.The authorities that control the quality of water must constantly take samples and hand over water for testing, but you yourself can contact special services to conduct additional research.
There are many places now to help you with water quality testing. But in any case, do not forget that the test liquid must comply with all GOST standards. You can send for examination not only drinking, but also waste, mineral, industrial and purified water. Each type of water has its own test standards.
You can check the liquid in the following institutions:
You should also be sure to check whether the organization has a license and accreditation, otherwise you have no guarantees that the work was done correctly and efficiently. If problems arise, such analysis will have no legal effect.
You should also check how modern the laboratory equipment is. After verification, you will be provided with an act or protocol, which will indicate all the indicators. The document will indicate the data on the liquid, the concentration of the components, as well as the final conclusion about the suitability and recommendations. If you are not satisfied with the results, you can always double-check the result in another laboratory.
For a quality check and conduct a chemical analysis of water at home, you should take a sample correctly.
If you want to identify harmful components, it is advisable to do everything under the supervision of a laboratory employee.
If you will do everything yourself, follow these simple rules:
If the liquid stays in the bottle for a long time, then the composition will change. If you can't do everything as soon as possible, put a container of water in the refrigerator.
For a sample, you need at least 1.5 liters, but it is better to find out the exact information in the laboratory where you plan to take the liquid for analysis. Each test may require a different amount of water.
For certain examinations, water should be collected in a plastic or glass bottle. If all the conditions are met, then the check will give accurate results. Water analysis should be performed in a laboratory, but you can also find out the quality at home. All methods indicated in the article are effective and safe.
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