The house is built, the main work is completed. Now, in order to give the built space a residential look, interior decoration is needed. For this, various types of plates and sheet materials are used.
The durability and aesthetics of the premises depend on which slabs are used for external and internal decoration. And the use of "sandwich" panels with a finished finish and a layer of insulation can significantly reduce the construction period.
In this article, we will analyze in detail what materials exist for the interior cladding of a frame house, and how to use them.
The most widely known material for interior decoration of the house - chipboard (chipboard). For its manufacture, wood chips are used, which, under the influence of high temperature, are pressed with thermoactive resins. Their weight ranges from 6 to 18% of the chip weight. The well-known drawback of chipboard is its non-environmental friendliness, since the plate contains formaldehyde, a substance that adversely affects human health.
However, modern technologies make it possible to reduce the harmful effects of chipboard to a minimum.
According to the concentration of formaldehyde, chipboard is divided into two classes: E1 and E2 . E1 is safer, and even allowed for the manufacture of children's furniture. The amount of formaldehyde in E1 class slabs is not more than 10 mg per 100 g. E2 class contains 10-30 mg formaldehyde per 100 g of material, and it is prohibited to decorate living quarters with such slabs and make furniture from them.
Lined boards do not pose a threat to health, only the exposed edges of the chipboard are dangerous. But today there are also fully lined panels that are not dangerous.
Chipboard as a material for finishing a wooden house has a number of advantages: high density, low price, simple processing. Chipboard is used for cladding walls, roofs, making floors and partitions.
There are many options for facing chipboards.
For a classic, austere interior, a natural wood veneer finish with a lacquer finish is suitable. Plates are also available with a coating of natural or artificial leather. This material helps to create a respectable interior.
There is a special type of chipboard for finishing rooms where sound insulation is needed - perforated, sheathed with veneer or polymer composition. There are also laminated chipboards, which provide a wide range of design variations through the design of the boards.
There are more than 500 options for their appearance in a variety of colors and textures. In addition, lamination of the chipboard surface improves its mechanical properties, resistance to high temperatures and cracking.
When choosing a chipboard, several factors must be taken into account, on which the grade of material will depend: the mechanical loads to which the plate will be subjected, the appearance of the room, the humidity and temperature of the air in the room, the method of installation.
Today chipboard of various brands exists: PA - can be used for the manufacture of furniture, PB - for finishing work, M - fine-structured, W - polished, NSh - not polished, V - moisture resistant .
The easiest way to fix chipboards is to plant them on the glue.
The base must be primed before this and treated with an antiseptic. For damp rooms, you need to use a special adhesive. It should be borne in mind that slabs glued to the surface cannot be removed without violating their integrity.
You can first mount a crate on the wall using dowels, to which you can then attach chipboard sheets with self-tapping screws. This technique is used if the walls are uneven, as well as when it is necessary to leave space between the chipboard sheets and the wall, to hide engineering networks.
The slabs can be fixed directly to a wooden or even base using a construction stapler, screws or nails. Fastening of plates to an aluminum profile is possible. This method is also suitable for leveling walls and damp rooms.
This is a medium density wood board (in English - Medium Density Fiberboard, hence the abbreviation that is sometimes used - MDF), or fiberboard dry pressing plate. It is made from wood flour obtained as a result of grinding shavings.
To obtain a plate, flour is pressed at high pressure and temperature with the addition of lignin, which is contained in wood. Lignin makes the material resistant to fungi and microorganisms.
Varnish, veneer or plastic is applied to the fiberboard surface. The thickness of the slab varies from 3 mm to 3 cm. Durability and moisture resistance of fiberboard - exceed those of natural wood and particleboard.
MDF is easy to process, has a homogeneous structure, holds the screws better. It is widely used in interior decoration - for wall cladding - in the form of panels; the popular flooring, laminate, is also made of fiberboard. Fiberboard is also used in the manufacture of furniture, enclosures of acoustic systems.
This material is widely used for interior decoration : with its help, walls, ceilings and floors are leveled, interior partitions are made from it, as well as decorative elements: arches, columns, spheroids, multilevel ceilings.
The composition of the gypsum board is as follows: 93% - dihydrate gypsum, 6% - cardboard, 1% - surfactants, starch, water.
This composition gives rise to the advantages of the material: it is chemically inert, in terms of acidity it approaches human skin, does not emit harmful substances into the environment, and is non-flammable.
The disadvantages of drywall primarily include fragility. It does not withstand heavy loads, so its use for finishing and leveling floors and ceilings is limited. It also makes it difficult to transport the material.
Gypsum board is a gypsum board, pasted over on both sides with sheets of special cardboard.
The sheets are 2700-3000x1200x12 mm in size. There is drywall for bathrooms and kitchens, increased ductility for cladding rounded walls. Plasterboard is used for the manufacture of sandwich panels with an insulating layer of polyurethane foam. The use of such panels significantly reduces the construction time of the house.
In addition to simple drywall sheets, there are more interesting varieties - painted, laminated drywall, gypsum vinyl (gypsum) .
This material has a wide range of colors and decor, and does not need painting or additional finishing. Walls are faced with gypsum vinyl, window slopes are sewn up, internal partitions, showcases, and exhibition racks are built from it.
On the basis of gypsum, another type of panels is produced - gypsum boards, which have a more compact size and greater thickness than drywall. The advantages and uses of gypsum board are similar to drywall.
This material is made from a mixture of gypsum and cellulose waste paper using semi-dry pressing.
Mechanical characteristics: durable, hard, fireproof.
It is used in almost all types of finishing works : installation of interior partitions, wall cladding, protection of structures from fire, floor screed and suspended ceilings.
Plywood is a popular construction material. It is obtained from several layers of thin veneer, glued together with phenol-formaldehyde resins under pressure at a high temperature. For these purposes, they use veneer of wood species that are most common in Russia - conifers and birch.
Plywood of high and medium moisture resistance is produced, as well as bakelized.
Plywood sheets are sometimes faced from one or both sides with a paper-resin coating, which has increased strength, protects the wood from moisture, mold, mildew, not subject to destruction. The result is a material with improved properties - film faced plywood. Lamination allows you to introduce a decorative element - to apply a pattern, imitation oak, poplar, maple, pine, birch, walnut, larch.
It is produced by pressing chips up to 140 mm long, up to 0.
7 mm thick under pressure, at high temperature with an adhesive resin. In the outer layers of OSB, the chips are located longitudinally, and in the inner layers - transversely.
Thanks to this, OSB acquire sufficient strength - this type of board is 3 times stronger than chipboard and MDF.At the same time, oriented strand board is flexible enough, which makes it indispensable in construction and finishing works. The thickness of the OSB varies from 6-8 mm (such plates are laid on the floor under the laminate) to 10 mm - these are used for structures and formwork.
OSB is used for cladding attics, walls and ceilings, floors, production of formwork, fences and demountable structures. OSB has an interesting texture, which is why interior designers and decorators love it. Oriented strand boards are often used to decorate ceilings, elements in built-in furniture and walls.
This material is white, its structure is reinforced fiberglass, flexible, durable, fire and moisture resistant. Sheet thickness - from 3 to 20 mm.
Fiberglass mesh gives the material excellent flexibility - bending radius up to 3 meters. As a result, it becomes possible to use such sheets on uneven surfaces, and the possibility of fracture during transportation and installation is reduced. The sheets can also be used in damp rooms, as they have significant moisture resistance. Fire resistance: with a sheet thickness of 6 mm - temperature up to 1500 degrees, it is able to withstand fire for 2 hours. The material does not emit toxic substances into the environment, it is harmless to humans.
Used for exterior decoration of houses, production of ceilings, walls, interior partitions. Magnesium glass sheet can be used in showers, saunas, swimming pools, as it is very resistant to moisture and high temperatures.
Various types of decor and finishes are suitable for applying them to the surface of LSU. It can be paint, wallpaper, composite aluminum panels, veneer, ceramic, glass, mirror tiles, plastic.
For leveling and adhesion to decorative materials on glass-magnesium sheets, you can use any kind of putty, glue.
In addition, there are also laminated glass-magnesium sheets, which already have a decorative surface.
LSU has two surfaces. Front - smoother, it goes for painting, as well as for wallpaper, lamination, application of other decorative materials that do not require a primer. The back surface of the glass-magnesium sheet is rougher, suitable for fixing tiles, veneers and other piece materials for cladding. The back side of the sheets themselves are glued to the walls, floor.
The system for joining the sheets to the base can be metal or wood, or glue can be used for fixing.
This material consists of wood wool and an inorganic binder - cement. Fiber is made from waste from planers in the woodworking industry. The thickness of the slabs is 3-5 mm.
The advantage of the fibreboard is low weight.
Also, the material is resistant to fire due to the fact that the chips are impregnated with cement - the result of exposure to fire will only be soot. Fibrolite boards are easy to process and fasten to structures, resistant to microorganisms.
The material is used in houses for warming, insulation, including sound, in the construction of roofs and partitions. Can be used in rooms where the humidity is no more than 75% . Fiberboard boards can be used without additional decoration, can be painted in various colors.
Composite fiberboard panels are also produced, which contain a middle layer of insulation - rigid foam or mineral fiber. The outer layers of fiberboard are 5-20 mm thick, the middle layer of thermal insulation is 15-140 mm.
Advantages and disadvantages of different types of slabs for interior decoration.
|Chipboard|| Good processing |
Wide choice of thickness, appearance of the boards
| Poorly holding fasteners |
Releases harmful substances
Non-moisture resistant material
|Fiberboard|| Resistant to high temperatures |
Not attacked by fungi and microorganisms
| Non-moisture resistant material |
Emitted on fire acrid smoke
Poorly holds fasteners
Sawdust from sawing boards is harmful to health
|Drywall|| Non-flammable |
Well suited for processing
Harmless to humans and the environment
| Vulnerable to moisture and low temperatures |
|Gypsum fiber board|| The structure is more uniform than that of drywall a |
| Low bending strength |
Requires finishing before paint application
Less suitable for interior decoration than drywall
|Plywood|| Handles well and holds fasteners |
| Contains harmful resins |
Resistant to fire
|OSB|| Stronger than other boards |
Good holding fasteners
Resistant to moisture
Lower price than chipboard
| Contains harmful substances |
When processed, it emits harmful sawdust
Poor processing than chipboard
|Glass-magnesium sheet|| Resistant to fire and moisture |
Sound insulating and insulating properties
Can be used for exterior and interior decoration of a house
| Low strength |
It is necessary to use putties on chemical adhesives
|Fiberboard|| Durability |
Easy to assemble
Provides sound and thermal insulation
Not subject to destruction due to biological factors (rodents, insects, microorganisms)
| Heavy weight |
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