How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video It is difficult for us to live without conveniences, even in a private house. We strive to provide maximum comfort, creating an optimal standard of living for our family. For this, it is very important to think over the issue of constructing sewerage in advance.

When constructing a sewage system with your own hands in a private country cottage, you can save money, but you need to carry out these works in accordance with the construction and installation requirements.

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Types of sewerage

Conducting sewerage in the house involves the arrangement of external and internal sewerage.

Internal is the piping, installation of the fan pipe and riser.

External refers to a set of pipes running from the house to a septic tank or deep cleaning station.

Internal sewerage scheme

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video

Select a scheme a sewer system is needed based on the layout of each house. Ideally, when all plumbing equipment is tied to one collector, through which the water will flow.

In a large house with several bathrooms, it is more correct to prefer such a scheme in which there will be at least two cesspools or a septic tank.

And in a two-story house, it is necessary to install risers.

How to draw up a sewerage scheme for a private house:

  1. make a plan of the house;
  2. determine the location of the risers;
  3. mark the location of the plumbing fixtures and decide on the methods for their connection;
  4. depict the pipes going from the fittings and the riser to the plumbing, and all the connection elements;
  5. do this for each floor;
  6. decide on the dimensions of the fan pipe and riser;
  7. sum up the length of all internal pipes;
  8. at the final stage, draw up a diagram of the external sewage system.

How to choose pipes for sewerage

Pipes for external and internal sewerage are used differently.

Gray polyvinyl chloride and polypropylene pipes are used for laying pipes inside. For plank beds and risers, pipes with a diameter of 110 mm are used, and for drainage - 40 and 50 mm.

Turns are done with two plastic knees bent at right angles.

Often, pipes for external sewerage are orange in color, with a diameter of 110 mm and the required rigidity. Two-layer corrugated pipes can also be used.

Pipe properties

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video Cast iron:

  • durable and strong, designed for heavy loads.
  • expensive, heavy and brittle, internal corrosion can contribute to blockages.

Polypropylene :

  • Light and flexible, withstands high water temperatures well.
  • no shortcomings.

Polyvinyl chloride :

  • inexpensive and lightweight, used for outdoor sewerage.
  • Fragile, high water temperatures do not tolerate well.

Piping

The most serious process in the construction of a sewage system in a house is piping and piping.

At the end of the work, check the tightness of the system, and only then proceed to its operation.

Pipe connection

Today, many types of revisions, tees, elbows and plastic pipes are sold that are easy to connect. The joints can be treated with sealant. And in places where the pipe passes through the foundation, it is recommended to install a sleeve.

It is also important to remember about the slope of the pipes, which depends on its diameter, and is 2 - 3 cm per 1 m.

Sewer outlet

In order not to encounter a discrepancy between the internal and external sewerage, start the sewerage installation from the outlet,

It is mounted through the foundation deeper than the level of soil freezing. When setting the outlet above, it will be necessary to insulate the pipe.

If you did not think about it during the construction of the foundation, you will need to punch a hole in it sufficient to install a branch pipe with a sleeve. A sleeve is a small piece of pipe with a diameter of 130-160 mm. It should protrude 15 cm from both sides of the foundation.

The outlet diameter must be at least the diameter of the riser. And the sleeve is needed to create a pipe slope.

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video

Piping and installation of riser

Ideally position the riser in the toilet. It is mounted openly or hidden.

To connect sewer pipes with a riser, oblique tees are used, and adapters are used at the joints of pipes that are different in diameter.

At the intersection of pipes, it is necessary to install a collector with a diameter of 100-110 mm. Also install odor traps to protect you from unpleasant odors.

Installation of a special tee (revision) on each riser is required. With its help, it will be possible to clean the blockage. You can install a purge after each bend.

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video
It is better to place the riser in the toilet of a private house

Conclusion waste pipe

Functions of the waste pipe:

  • maintains atmospheric pressure inside the system;
  • increases the durability of the sewer system;
  • ventilates the entire sewerage system.

The fan pipe is called the extension of the riser. This is a pipe leading to the roof. Before connecting the drain pipe and the riser, it is important to install a revision. After that, the pipe is brought out at a convenient angle to the attic.

Do not combine the fan pipe with the chimney or ventilation of the house. The outlet of the funnel must be located at a distance of 4 meters from windows and balconies. The height of the retreat from the roof should be 70 cm. It is also important to place the ventilation of the sewage system, houses and the chimney at different levels.

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video

External sewerage of the house

Equip the sewerage There are many ways to do it in your home, but it is very important to choose the right system for your needs.

It is necessary to choose an external sewerage scheme taking into account the following:

  • temporarily or permanently you live in the house;
  • number of people living;
  • daily water consumption per person;
  • soil water level;
  • plot size;
  • soil type and structure;
  • climate.

For more detailed information, you should read the corresponding chapters of SNiP and SanPin.

All external sewerage systems are divided into two types:

  • storage (cesspool, sealed tank);
  • structures for wastewater treatment (single-chamber septic tank, septic tank with two overflow wells, aerotank, septic tank with biofilter, septic tank with several chambers and filtration field).

Cesspool without a bottom

This is a very old method of sewerage, which is now used exclusively as a summer cottage.

In the cesspool, walls are made of rings of concrete or bricks, and the ground remains as the bottom.

In a pit, relatively clear water seeps into the ground, and organic waste settles at the bottom.

When the well is completely filled with waste, it must be cleaned.

It is possible to make such a cesspool if the house does not live permanently and does not consume a lot of water. In this case, groundwater must pass at least 1 m below the bottom of the pit, otherwise it will lead to soil water pollution.

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video

Adding microorganisms to the pit will slightly reduce the unpleasant odor and speed up the water purification process.

Sealed storage tank

This option involves installing a sealed container into which water will drain. You can purchase a ready-made container made of metal or plastic, or you can make one yourself from concrete rings. The lid is made of metal and the bottom is made of concrete. During the construction of the storage tank, it is important that it is completely sealed and insulated with a lid.

When filling the tank, it must be cleaned with a special suction machine.

The volume of the tank and the frequency of cleaning it depends on the water consumption.

This system can be used with a high groundwater level, so you secure water sources and soil. But its disadvantage is that you need to call the sewer truck quite often.

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video

Single chamber septic tank

This is a well, the bottom of which is covered with a layer of crushed stone and coarse sand. Water seeping through them is 50% purified.

Along with mechanical cleaning, there are biological cleaning processes.

You should not build such a sewer in a private house if people live in it permanently. This option can only be used at low groundwater levels. It should be noted that crushed stone and sand need to be changed periodically.

With your own hands, a septic tank can be made from polypropylene, reinforced concrete rings, from brick or filling its walls and floor with concrete.

In this case, it is necessary to determine whether the wastewater treatment will take place in the well field or in the filtration field. You also need to equip a septic tank ventilation system and carry out its hydro and thermal insulation.

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video

Two-chamber septic tank

The most popular method sewerage devices in a country house, economical and can be built independently.

It consists of two wells. The first one has a sealed bottom, and the second one does not have it, but it is covered with rubble and sand, which will need to be replaced approximately every five years.

The first well plays the role of a sump, and the second - a filtering well. Periodically, the first well is filled with waste and to clean it, you need to call a sewer truck about 2 times a year.

It is worth installing such a sewage system in a house, even if the level of groundwater is below 1 m from the bottom of the second well even in a flood. How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video

Soil and biological treatment - septic tank with filtration field

This type a septic tank is made in the form of a container, divided into sections connected by pipes.

The first tank is needed to settle the wastewater.

The clarified water goes to the second section, where organic residues are decomposed by anaerobic bacteria. Then the water goes to the filtration fields.

This is a vast underground area where soil wastewater treatment takes place. If your site is sandy, then this is ideal. After that, the water is directed through pipelines to a well or a drainage ditch.

Sometimes sand and crushed stone must be replaced in the filtration field.

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video

The construction in a private house of such a system is recommended only when underground waters pass at a depth of 2, 5 m.

Station of natural treatment - septic tank with biofilter

With its help you can carry out sewerage at any level of groundwater.

Such a station is a tank divided into 3-4 sections.

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video

In the first, water is settled, in the second, organic residues are decomposed by anaerobic microorganisms.

In the third, the water is separated, and in the fourth, organic matter is decomposed by aerobic bacteria, which live only under the condition of constant air flow. For this, a pipe towering above the ground is installed above the camera. In the pipe leading from the third chamber to the fourth, there is a filter with aerobic bacteria. Purified water can be used for technical purposes. From the fourth chamber, a pipe goes to a drainage ditch, or a storage tank.

For a country house with permanent residence, a septic tank with a biofilter is the best solution. The disadvantage is that with inconsistent residence, the bacteria will simply die.

Artificial cleaning station - septic tank with forced air supply

This is a quick cleaning installation, in it natural processes are artificially caused. A sewerage device using an aeration tank is impossible without supplying electricity to it.

This septic tank has three chambers connected to each other.

Water enters the first, settles and leaves solid waste in the sediment. Then it is pumped into the second, which is the aeration tank, where water is mixed with activated sludge from microorganisms and plants. All of them are aerobic, and forced aeration is necessary for their functioning.

Then water and sludge enter the third chamber, which is a deep cleaning settler, after which the sludge is pumped back to the aeration tank by a pump.

How to equip an internal and external sewage system in a private house with your own hands - Scheme + Video

The aeration tank is quite expensive, but it has no restrictions on its installation.

Of the minuses, we can only say about the need for electricity, and permanent residence, so that bacteria do not die.

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