How to install a surface drainage system? Review and Instruction + Video

How to install a surface drainage system? Review and Instruction + Video DIY surface drainage system. To prevent the possible damage caused by melt water and heavy rainfall, you can use the creation of a surface drainage system. Such a system will serve to collect and drain water from excess atmospheric precipitation, which often flood adjacent areas, and at the same time fruit trees (and other plantations), basements and foundations.

In the article we will talk about the surface drainage system.

General information

Advantages of surface drainage

The arrangement of the system does not require serious financial investments due to the reduction of earthworks.

As a result, the likelihood of violation of the structural strength of the soil will decrease, that is, subsidence will form.

  • Due to the fact that the external drainage system will be organized according to a linear type, you will be able to significantly expand the coverage of the territory for water discharge, and at the same time, such a value as the length of the sewer highways.
  • Implementation of the system can be performed without compromising the entire integrity of the existing road surface. Here the plunge cut will be performed.
  • The system is suitable for installation on unstable or rocky ground.

    They are also ideal for places where it is not possible to carry out deep work (architectural monuments and underground communications).

These are excellent characteristics that fully justify the use of surface drainage.

Varieties of water drainage systems

Water disposal is part of the storm sewage system, and it is used for the arrangement of public and private territories. There are two types of systems - point and linear.

  • How to install a surface drainage system? Review and Instruction + Video The point system represents storm water inlets that are located locally and combined underground with a pipeline.

    The system is ideal for collecting water from roof gutters. Also, its installation will be advisable for areas that are small in area or have certain restrictions for arranging a linear type of drainage.

  • Linear system is made of gutters, in some cases also from a storm water inlet. This design perfectly copes with the task over a large area. When organizing it, earthwork is minimized.

    Its installation is required in areas where there is clay soil, or the slope is greater than 3 degrees.

Each of the systems differs in that it works efficiently, but their combination is the best option for creating a water drainage system.

Drainage device

For the organization of water drainage of a point or linear type, various devices and elements are usually used, in which each component will have its own purpose. Competent unification helps to bring everything to effective work.


Gutters are an integral part of linear surface drainage systems, and are required in order to collect sediment and melt water .

.. After that, excess moisture must be sent to the sewer, or although taken away from the site.

  • Plastic products differ in that they weigh little and are easy to install. Adapters, plugs, fasteners and other elements were specially developed for this, which help to facilitate the assembly and installation process.

    Despite the fact that they have high technical characteristics (frost resistance and strength) of the material used, they have a load limit, namely up to 25 tons. Such gutters are usually installed on a suburban area, pedestrian crossing, paths for cyclists, i.e. where high mechanical impacts are not provided.

  • Concrete products are really very strong, affordable and durable.

    They are able to withstand fairly solid loads. Installation of such trays will be advisable for places where vehicles travel, for example, on the road near the entrance or near the garage. Above, you need to install cast iron or steel gratings. A reliable fastening system does not make it possible to change the position of the elements during the operational period.

  • Polymer concrete channels were able to combine the best performance of concrete and plastic.

    With a relatively low weight, the products can withstand significant loads and differ in that they have high physical and technical properties, which means that the cost for them is completely indecent. But thanks to its smooth surface, the debris passes without difficulty, and if you perform a competent installation and periodically clean it, then you will have a drainage system that will last for many years.

  • Sand receivers
  • This element of the system is responsible for filtering the water from sand, earth and other suspended particles. The trash box is equipped with a special basket, into which all extraneous, garbage falls. Equipment that is installed in the immediate vicinity of the drain to the sewer helps to ensure operational efficiency.

  • Trash boxes, as well as trays, must be suitable for the type of load. Since this element is located in the same bundle with the rest of the components of the drainage system, it must be made of the same material as the other links in the chain.
  • The top of the device has the same shape as the grooves. It will also be covered with a drainage grate, so it is not very noticeable from the outside. It is possible to lower the level of location (make it lower than the depth of soil freezing) by installing these elements on top of each other.

  • The design features of the sand trap provide for the presence of side outlets for connecting water to the pipes of the storm underground sewage system.The standard diameter outlet is usually well above the bottom and therefore various small particles remain there after settling.
  • The sand box can be made of polymer concrete, concrete and synthetic polymers. The package includes cast iron, steel and plastic grilles. The choice of material of manufacture will depend on how much water is supposed to be removed, as well as what is the load in the installation area.

Storm water inlet

  • Rain and melt water that collects through drainpipes and falls from the roof of the building onto the blind area. In such an area, it is required to install storm water inlets, which are a square-shaped container. Their installation will be much more expedient in those places where it is not possible to arrange the surface drainage system.
  • Storm water inlets also act as a sand catcher, they represent an additional waste collection container that I regularly clean and a siphon that helps to protect people from odorous substances that are in the sewer. They are also equipped with nozzles for connecting to underground drainage pipes.

  • Most often they are made of high-strength plastic or cast iron. The upper part has a grate that can take up the load, prevent the ingress of coarse debris and perform a decorative function. The grill is available in steel, plastic and cast iron.

Drainage grates

  • The grate is part of the surface drainage of water, and it is she who receives on itself is a mechanical load. This element is visible, so the product needs to be decorative.

  • How to install a surface drainage system? Review and Instruction + Video The drainage grid can even be classified according to operational loads. For both the backyard and the suburban area, class C and A products are perfect. For this purpose, you can use copper, plastic or steel gratings.
  • Cast iron products are very durable. Such lattices are used to equip areas where there is a high transport load (up to 90 tons).

    Although cast iron can be damaged by corrosion and requires regular painting, there are simply no alternatives in strength.

  • As for the service life for drainage grates, cast iron products can last at least 25 years, and steel ones about 10, while plastic grates will have to be replaced every 5-6 seasons.

Now that all the components have been considered, you can go directly to the design of the drainage system.

Drainage design

The calculation of the system for a large area is carried out according to a hydro project, which will take into account all the nuances, even the smallest - precipitation intensity, landscape design, and so on. Based on this, the length and number of elements in the drainage system should be determined.

  • For summer cottages or suburban areas, it will be enough to draw a plan of the territory, where the location of the drainage will be marked.Here, the number of gutters, connection elements and other components will be calculated.
  • The width of the channels should be selected depending on the bandwidth. The optimal width of the gutter for private construction is 10 cm. In places where there is increased drainage of water, gutters with a width of up to 30 cm can be used.

  • Pay attention to the diameter of the outlet. The standard section of sewer pipes is 11 cm, so if the outlet has a different diameter, adapters should be used.

Rapid outflow of water through the canal helps provide sloped surfaces.

Such a slope can be organized using the following methods:

  • Use the existing natural slope.
  • Excavate and slope the surface with slight differences.

  • Select trays with different heights, it is used only in small areas.
  • Buy channels with a sloped inner surface. Typically, these items are made of concrete.

And now let's take a closer look at how to equip a storm drain.

Stages of the storm-type arrangement

  1. Using a stretched string, mark the drainage boundaries.

    If the system is on a concrete site, the markings should be done with chalk or sand.

  2. Next, you need to remove the soil. A jackhammer is required on an asphalt site.
  3. The width of the trench should be at least 20 cm wider than the width of the tray (10 cm on each side). The depth under the gutters made of light material should be calculated taking into account that a sand cushion with a thickness of 10 to 15 cm will be created.

    Under the concrete trays, first a layer of crushed stone should be laid, and then sand. Note that the drainage grid after installation should be located 0.3 cm below the surface. The bottom of the trench can be poured with lean concrete, but such actions should be performed only if there is no provision for road transport.

  4. Assembling the surface drainage system.

    To do this, lay the trays in the trench and fix the spike-groove with each other using the fasteners. Most often, the product is marked with an arrow that indicates the direction of the water. If required, the joints can be completely sealed with polymer components.

  5. The next step is to install the sand trap. The line for draining water using a fittings should be connected to a sand receiver and sewer pipes.

  6. The empty space between the walls and gutters of the trench should be covered with rubble or earth that was dug and removed earlier and thoroughly tamp everything. It is also possible to fill with sand and gravel mortar.
  7. The installed channels should be covered with protective and decorative grilles.We also note that if plastic trays are used during the arrangement of the drainage system, then the gratings should be installed to fill the space with concrete.

Stages of arrangement of point type

  1. In areas where water accumulates most, pull out the foundation pit.

    The width of the pit must be equal to the size of the rain receiver container. It should be noted that the lattice should also be slightly below the very surface of the earth.

  2. Also, you should get the soil in the places where the line is laid for the discharge of the linear type or pipes. It is very important here that you maintain a slope of approximately 1 cm for every meter of surface.
  3. The bottom of the pit should be tamped down and a sand cushion should be arranged, the layer of which will be from 10 to 15 cm.

    On top of it, a concrete mixture should be poured, the thickness of which will be 20 cm.

  4. Next, install a rain receiver to which will be connected to drainage trays or sewer pipes.
  5. At the end, install the siphon, insert the waste basket and install the grate.
  6. The design of the rain receiver makes it possible to install several containers, one on top of the other, which makes it possible to deepen the outlet pipe below the freezing level of the ground.

Shallow channels

Rocky soils make it difficult to install standard size gutters.

Because of this, some manufacturers offer products with a shallow depth of insertion, in which the channel height is 9.5 cm.

  • As a rule, trays are made of plastic and they have high physical and technical indicators. The package includes drainage nets made of galvanized steel, which are resistant to abrasion of the polymer coating.
  • Such channels are often used in areas with little waste water.

    With their help, it is possible to organize effective surface drainage with a minimum amount of earthworks.

Well-organized and timely installed drainage of water will help protect yourself from seasonal flooding of the foundation and green spaces, and will also give the landscape a well-groomed look. The cost of the arrangement quickly pays off, since the system is a way to extend the life of the house, reduces the cost of repairs and additional maintenance. The costly and time-consuming control of mold in the basement due to high humidity levels will also bypass you.