With all the advantages of brick, there is a significant disadvantage - low energy efficiency. In order for a brick house to be warm even in severe frosts, the thickness of its walls must be more than one meter. This requirement significantly increases the cost of construction and increases the construction time of the building. The most practical way to save energy is wall insulation. But the question arises: how to insulate a brick house outside?
Formally, insulation of a house from the inside is not prohibited by any joint venture or GOST.
The quality of installation and correctly selected materials affect much more energy saving. In case of insufficient surface cleaning, neglect of installation rules or poor quality of raw materials, the indoor temperature will decrease, regardless of the side chosen. At the same time, the installation of plates from the inside reduces the useful area of the room.
Thermal insulation of the front part looks more logical from this point of view. In addition, a large selection of materials allows you to choose the best price-quality ratio.
When insulating a building from the outside, the materials used must be protected from the effects of ultraviolet radiation and atmospheric precipitation. Otherwise, the applied energy saving system will collapse very quickly and will not protect against low temperatures. This should be taken into account when choosing the installation technology and the type of heat insulator.
Before starting work on insulation, it is necessary to complete all the "wet" processes inside the house, fill in the window and door openings, and complete the installation of the roof. It is recommended to cover windows and doors with foil or other material to protect them from accidental damage or contamination.
For ease of installation, it is necessary to dismantle all elements that interfere with the complete adhesion of surfaces: lamps, ebbs, drainpipes, and so on. The attachment points should be noted in advance in order to return them to their place after insulation.
It is in no case possible to start insulation in the presence of atmospheric precipitation. If this cannot be avoided, it is recommended to install scaffolding and cover it with a protective mesh to protect the facade. This will reduce the contact of the insulation with water and ultraviolet rays.
IMPORTANT! It is not recommended to start insulation at temperatures below + 5 ° C and above + 30 ° C to avoid early solidification of the composition or poor adhesion of surfaces. If work is carried out in the winter, then to maintain the required temperature, you need to close the house with foil and turn on the heat guns.
Within 3 - 4 years after the end of construction, a brick building goes through a shrinkage stage.At this time, it is not recommended to start any work with the facade in order to avoid the appearance of cracks and chips, through which water will enter and accumulate, which leads to an increase in heat loss. This rule applies regardless of the chosen insulation technology.
Already at the design stage of the house, one should take into account how the room will be insulated. The techniques for installing energy-saving plates can be conditionally divided into 3 technologies:
"Wet facade ". The technology got its name due to the use of a primer, plaster and glue mixture in the decoration of the front of the house. Before starting work, the walls of the house are inspected for chips or other damage.
Remains of the sand-cement mixture must be removed, and cracks in the joints and cracks in the bricks must be repaired. During the inspection and preparation phase, it is recommended to use a thermal imager to find the coldest places.
Next, a primer is applied to the surface, and after it dries, the walls are leveled with plaster, if necessary. This stage will increase the contact area between the wall and the insulation. After that, the insulation is fixed on a special glue.
When preparing the glue mixture, it is recommended to follow the instructions on the package and mix the composition thoroughly without leaving a lump.
IMPORTANT! Manufacturers do not advise using a concrete mixer for these purposes, as foreign materials can get into the glue. Their presence reduces the properties of the composition.
A reinforcing mesh is laid on top of the slab, which is attached with dowels. The final part is plastering and painting.
One of the advantages of this method, experts call low cost materials. However, if the installation rules are not followed, such a coating will quickly crack and collapse.
Ventilated facade. The difference between this technology is that the external elements of the facade are not attached directly to the insulation, but to a special frame made of metal beams, lagging behind the wall at a distance of 4 - 6 centimeters. Thanks to this gap, moisture does not accumulate on the surface of the insulation, and its service life increases.
An additional advantage is that, if necessary, the elements of the facade can be removed and the thickness of the insulation layer can be increased or replaced.
IMPORTANT! The thickness of the frame profile should be greater than the thickness of the insulation. If the thermal insulation layer does not allow leaving a gap of the required size, then an additional supporting structure or counter-lattice should be made.
Vapor-permeable materials, such as mineral wool, are used as heat insulators for a ventilated facade. Water vapor should freely escape from the wall and be removed by passing through the insulation.
In-lining insulation. At the initial stages of construction, wall insulation can be carried out inside the brickwork. For this, a layer of heat insulator is laid against the wall, and then closed with a new layer of masonry. This method is used less often than others due to the difficulties of installation and the inability to gain access to the insulation without destroying the walls. In addition, the cost of building such a house increases dramatically due to the use of more building materials.
There are two ways to insulate a house inside the masonry:
The first type of insulation consists in the construction of the first wall half a brick thick , attaching a layer of insulation to it and closing it with a second wall.
IMPORTANT! The method has its pros and cons, however, according to officials, the technology cannot provide a high level of building security. Since 2008, well laying has been prohibited on the territory of the Moscow Region.
Three-layer masonry is performed according to a similar principle, but the first the supporting structure is made of hollow bricks, to which the insulation is attached.
The front part is covered with facing bricks. The system has a number of advantages, such as resistance to external influences, no need for renovation or painting, as well as aesthetically pleasing appearance.
The material is practically weightless, as it is 98% air. Supplied as slabs in various sizes. In terms of heat saving, polystyrene foam has a high coefficient - from 0.
032 to 0.038 W. / MKv. For comparison, for silicate brick masonry, this indicator is 0.47 W.
/ MKv. The parameters may vary depending on the thickness of the wall and the density of the PPP, but the difference will still be significant.
Polyfoam is suitable for insulating a brick house only from the outside. The use of material for internal insulation threatens the appearance of an unpleasant odor. In addition, PPS is very flammable, so you should not use it in buildings with an increased risk of fire.
Installation of polystyrene plates can be performed by a person without special skills. The main thing is to observe the installation technology and carefully monitor the fulfillment of the required conditions. The surface of the walls must be cleaned of dirt and protruding elements removed.The PPS sheet is attached to the wall with glue and additionally fixed with dowels. A layer of reinforcing mesh is laid on top of expanded polystyrene, on which facade plaster is applied.
In fact, it is the same foam, but with higher performance parameters. The thermal conductivity index of EPS is less than that of foam - 0.028, which means it is more energy efficient.
The material does not absorb moisture and is difficult to burn. Due to the complication of the production process, the cost of a sheet of extruded polystyrene foam is higher than that of other heaters.
The installation of EPSP boards is somewhat different from the installation of conventional foam. The surface of the extruded polystyrene foam is smooth, therefore, before starting work, it is recommended to rough it up using an abrasive with fine grain. This step can be skipped if the slab is already corrugated.
The sheets should be staggered to avoid cross-shaped joints on special glue. The fixing mixture must be applied with a grooved trowel, including on the end surfaces. For additional fixation, dowels of the "fungus" type with a wide head are used. If the insulation technology includes "wet" processes, the EPSP layer is covered with a reinforcing grid and decorative putty.
This type of insulation is made of stone, glass or quartz and comes in rolls or slabs. A feature of mineral wool is a high rate of fire safety. Upon contact with fire, the surface of the insulation turns black, but does not light up. In addition, mineral wool sheets have high vapor permeability rates, which allows moisture to escape from the walls to the outside.
Due to the ability of the material to pass water vapor, it is widely used in ventilated facade technology.
The surface of the walls before fixing the insulation should be cleaned of irregularities and primed ... After preparation, polymer-cement glue is applied to the back of the board.
It should be prepared just before starting the installation. Next, you should press the sheet of insulation and additionally secure it with dowels. Before fixing, the adhesive base should dry out within 24 hours. With the "wet" method of installation, it is recommended to overlap the reinforcing stack of at least 10 cm.
Installation of mineral wool boards should be started from the corner of the house.
The sheets should be laid from the bottom up with the obligatory bandaging of the seams. In the area of window and door openings, the appearance of cross-shaped joints should be avoided. At the end of the work, it is recommended to inspect the insulation plates for uneven joints and protruding parts. Seams should be sealed with thin strips of insulation, and unevenness should be sanded with abrasive paper. A prerequisite is the installation of a waterproofing layer.
One day after gluing, you need to additionally fasten the insulation with dowels at the rate of 5 - 10 pieces per 1 sq. meter . The holes in the wall should be 10-15 cm longer than the length of the fastener.
The last point should be discussed in more detail. Some companies, in order to reduce the cost, put on the market mineral wool slabs without waterproofing impregnation. Such materials are used in places where contact with moisture is not provided. Therefore, to insulate the facade from the outside, you should choose a mineral wool with protection against moisture.
More One option for insulating the facade of a house is clinker thermal panels.
They are made in the form of plates of expanded polystyrene or polyurethane foam, on the front side of which decorative elements are fixed. There are plenty of finishing options on the market: with imitation of natural stone, brick or plaster. In recent years, the material has been in great demand due to its ease of fixing and saving time for finishing. After fixing the panels, the front part of the building takes on a finished look and does not need additional processing.
Facade thermal panels
The most important step is to level the walls before starting work.
The peculiarity of the structure of thermal panels is that they are installed according to the principle of "thorn-groove", therefore, with improper installation or insufficiently even walls, the insulation can bend.A competently executed installation of panels excludes the appearance of a "cold bridge".
Sheets should be stacked in rows, inserting each next element into the grooves. Additional fixation of the panels is carried out using several types of fasteners. A "fungus" is hammered into the free corners of the slab to secure it to the wall.
In the presence of seams, for example, on copies with imitation of bricks, construction screws are used.
Each building material has its own heat conductivity index. The lower this parameter, the less energy goes to the street when heating the room.
Table No. 1. Indicators of thermal conductivity of materials:
|Insulation material||Thermal conductivity coefficient, W. / MKw||Required coating thickness, m|
|Bricklaying of silicate solid brick||0.76|| 2. |
|Perforated brick masonry||0.5||1.57|
|Polyurethane foam|| 0. |
The level of thermal conductivity depends on the thickness of the applied layer and technology production. Manufacturing companies regularly improve production technologies to obtain effective thermal insulation material.
Sand-lime brick as a solid building material has the worst energy efficiency. Therefore, the use of insulation technologies in the construction of a house is necessary to preserve heat.
The difficulty in choosing a suitable material for thermal insulation is associated with a large number of additional parameters that affect the performance of the insulation. Environment and climate features play an important role in this. In humid regions, builders use additional waterproofing substrates and coatings to protect the insulation boards.
Without the use of such materials under a layer of plaster or ventilation facade, the insulation can undergo rotting or decomposition, which leads to early replacement of panels.
Failure to comply with the requirements for surface preparation leads to low adhesion adhesive composition and poor adhesion of the sealant layer to the wall. Despite the presence of additional clamps in the form of dowels, in places of loose contact of the heat insulator, areas of energy loss appear, which reduce the effectiveness of the insulation. You can find them with a thermal imager.
In the professional environment of builders, disputes about the most suitable material for insulation the facade does not stop today.
Some experts argue that the best material is polystyrene with its high energy efficiency, others recommend using only mineral wool, since it does not absorb moisture.
There can be no consensus on this issue, since the choice of insulation depends on the budget, operating characteristics and weather conditions of the region. It is important to understand that the wrongly selected material will perform its functions worse and worse over time, which will inevitably lead to the repair or replacement of the insulation. And if the installation rules are not followed, even the most expensive insulation will not last long. It is necessary already at the design stage to decide on the insulation technology and the type of energy-saving materials.
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