When building a private house, both the developer and the future owner of the cottage should pay great attention to the issue of thermal insulation and ensuring comfortable living conditions even in the most severe cold. This fully applies to buildings from a log cabin or a bar. But at the same time, such cottages have their own specifics, due to the material from which they are built. It cannot be ignored - otherwise it will negatively affect the durability of the walls and the decoration of buildings from a log house and a bar. Therefore, it is not so easy to decide how to insulate a wooden house from the outside and how, and it is necessary to approach this matter in detail.
How to insulate a wooden house from the outside and with what
Installation of battens on a log house for laying insulation
Carrying out measures for installing thermal insulation in a house made of a bar or log house, it is imperative to take into account the peculiarities of wood as a material. There are many of them, but the main ones are two - high vapor permeability and susceptibility to the effects of fungus and other microorganisms.
The walls of a wooden house are distinguished by high vapor permeability
The first means that the wood absorbs well and passes moisture through itself both from the inside and outside. Accordingly, insulation for a house built from a bar or a log house must have comparable vapor permeability indicators - otherwise, the walls will gradually damp, rot and become unusable. In addition, there is a need for a ventilation gap between the outer finish and the insulation - without it, the latter will absorb too much water and lose its thermal insulation qualities.
The table shows the vapor permeability indicators for the main building materials and heaters. As you can see, wood along the grain has the highest value of this parameter and is comparable only with mineral wool or autoclaved aerated concrete
On the left, you can see the negative effect that occurs in the event that the vapor permeability of the insulation and external decoration is lower than that of the wall, dampness and condensation appear.
And the second feature of wood, associated with the susceptibility of the material to fungus and microorganisms, requires the mandatory treatment of all walls and parts of the thermal insulation system with antiseptic compounds, and in several layers.
Insulation of a private house can be divided into two types.
Internal insulation of walls of a wooden house
Internal insulation in wooden houses is usually used when it becomes necessary to preserve the exterior of the building "under a tree". This usually applies to log cabins.
But at the same time, such a thermal insulation system has a number of disadvantages:
Insulation of a wooden house
Therefore, external insulation looks like a preferable option. This solution has the following advantages.
Due to these advantages, the article will focus on how to insulate a wooden house from the outside and what materials are suitable for this.
The difference in the position of the dew point for walls with internal and external insulation
Two-storey wooden house
In terms of ensuring high-quality thermal insulation and preventing the appearance of moisture / condensation on the wall and in the insulation, the most preferable way to protect the house from the cold is to arrange a ventilated facade. Regardless of the material used, the structure is a "layer cake" consisting of the following elements:
At the same time, a ventilation gap is formed between the insulation and the external finish of a wooden house due to the lathing, with the help of which an effective drainage of the flags is ensured and the risk of condensation and dampness is reduced.
Insulation of a wall made of a wooden bar.In the figure you can see all the elements of the ventilated facade - insulation, a frame for it, a windproof membrane, a lathing for finishing and the sheathing itself, represented by clapboard
Important! Separately, attention should be paid to such an issue as the presence of a vapor barrier film between a wooden wall and a heater. This film has long been the subject of controversy. Some masters argue that a vapor barrier between the wall and the insulation is needed, otherwise the thermal insulation material will quickly become damp due to moisture coming from the house.
Others hold the opposite opinion and say that the vapor barrier will disrupt the removal of moisture from the walls of the house, condensation will appear between it and the insulation, and then mold. Considering both of these opinions, we can say that it is possible to install a film to protect the thermal insulation material from moisture, but only if there is good ventilation in the house and a gap between the vapor barrier and a wooden wall.
Scheme of thermal insulation of a wooden house using a vapor barrier film. You can see that there is a small gap between it and the wall
Different ways of attaching the insulation to the wall from the log house: a) - roll insulation, fixed with racks; b) - single-layer thermal insulation, fixed on a frame made of timber; c) two-layer thermal insulation, fixed on a double crate; d) two-layer thermal insulation fixed to the frame with brackets
Fastening the thermal insulation to metal brackets and disc dowels
You can familiarize yourself with the materials used to insulate a wooden house outside from the table below and in the following sections of the article.
Insulation of a wooden house from the outside is the main materials.
|Material name|| Short description |
| Rolls and slabs of fine fibers of basalt and other minerals.
| Soft fiber board, made from ground wood. Does not contain glue or chemical binders. Possesses high density and vapor permeability.
| Rounded porous cells of expanded polystyrene bonded into plates.
Extruded polystyrene foam
| A kind of expanded polystyrene, made using a slightly different technology. Differs in greater density and better thermal insulation properties.
| Paper and cloth, processed into cellulose, with additives that prevent caking, rotting and rodents.
Before proceeding with the insulation of a wooden house , you need to decide what exactly to do, that is, what material.
You can see the options available to most in the table from the previous section. These are mineral wool, foam plastic, extruded polystyrene foam and ecowool. Let's consider them in a little more detail.
Do-it-yourself insulation of a wooden house
Mineral wool is a combination of many fibers obtained from melts of various rocks. As in cellulose wool, there is a large amount of air between the fibers, due to which the material acquires its heat-insulating qualities.
The following advantages speak in favor of mineral wool as a heater for a wooden house:
Insulation of the facade with mineral wool
But it should be borne in mind that mineral wool absorbs moisture well and at the same time loses much its thermal insulation properties. Therefore, from the outside, the insulation must be protected by a membrane windproof film.
A good option for insulating a wooden house is Izoplat soft fiber board. It is made "wet" from milled softwood fiber without adding glue or other chemical binders.
Due to this, the plate works efficiently in humid and cold climates and does not stratify from temperature extremes. The top of the board is treated with paraffin to protect it from atmospheric humidity. The Izoplat slab has a high vapor permeability rate, which means it prevents the walls from damping, the formation of fungus and mold. In terms of thermal insulation properties, 25 cm of material is comparable to 88 mm of solid wood. Izoplat also has a high sound insulation rate, which means that the house will become much quieter and more comfortable.
Thermal insulation of a wooden house with Isoplat plates
Other options for insulation for a wooden house are polystyrene foam and extruded polystyrene foam. Both are polymers consisting of cells glued together with many pores and voids. The latter, filled with air, provide the material with high thermal insulation qualities. Extruded polystyrene foam is made using a slightly different technology than conventional foam, due to which the material is denser and its cells are smaller. The material itself becomes stronger, but at the same time retains its thermal insulation qualities.
Foam insulation is not the best option for a wooden house, but many resort to this solution due to the cheapness of thermal insulation material
However Both polystyrene and extruded polystyrene foam have a serious drawback, due to which their use as insulation for a wooden house is doubtful - it is low vapor permeability. Moisture and water vapor penetrate these materials very poorly. Therefore, if a wooden house is insulated with foam plastic, a moist environment will surely arise between the wall and the layer of thermal insulation, favorable for the development of fungi and other microorganisms and, as a result, for decay and damage of wood.
Which foam is better for insulating a house outside
According to environmentalists, up to 40% of heat and electricity generated in the northern hemisphere is spent on heating of residential, industrial and other facilities. For this reason, high-quality insulation of buildings brings tangible benefits in terms of saving finances and comfort of living.
One of the most popular heat insulators is polystyrene (expanded polystyrene, PPS).
Another option for insulation is ecowool. This material is obtained from paper and textile waste converted to cellulose. But at the same time, it is supplemented with additives that protect the material from caking, rotting, burning and make it unattractive to insects and rodents. It has excellent thermal insulation properties.
But at the same time, the method of laying it differs from mineral wool and foam - ecowool in liquid form is sprayed onto the surface of wooden walls between the elements of the crate using special equipment. Then the material sets, dries and becomes a very durable layer of thermal insulation. However, you need to understand that without the help of a specialist, it will be impossible to carry out insulation with ecowool.
Ecowool spraying on the surface of a wooden house
Now that you know more about the materials used for thermal insulation of cottages from timber or logs , let's start describing how the warming process needs to be performed.
Thermal insulation materials
It is very easy to insulate a wooden house with Izoplatom.
The slab is a dense, but at the same time elastic material. It is enough just to press it against the wall and nail it down with a wide flat head. Isoplat reliably adheres to the base and does not allow the appearance of "cold bridges". A ventilated facade is installed on top of the slab. In addition, an Isoplat board of 25 mm or more can be covered with plaster.
Warming in this way can be done independently without the involvement of specialists. This is the fastest, easiest and most reliable option for insulating a wooden house.
It is very easy to insulate a wooden house with Izoplat plates
Consider how to perform one of the most popular ways to insulate a wooden house from the outside - with mineral wool slabs.
Thermal insulation of the facade with mineral wool
Work begins with the calculation the required amount of insulation. To do this, calculate how many square meters of the house are in the surfaces to be covered with mineral wool.
This problem is solved according to the following algorithm.
We start work with calculations
Step 1. Calculate the height of the walls from the basement to the beginning of the pediment. If one part of the house is one-, and the second is two-story, perform the calculations for them separately.
Determine the perimeter of the walls by counting their length.
Step 3. Multiply the perimeter of the walls by the height and subtract the area of the openings from the resulting figure - this will give you the approximate surface area to be insulated. But the calculations do not end there.
Using the formulas for determining the area of a triangle, calculate how many square meters are in your gables (if you are going to insulate them as well), and add this figure with the result of the calculations from the previous step.
Determination of the area of a wall, a simple pediment in the form of an isosceles triangle and a pediment of a complex shape (which is the sum of a trapezoid and a triangle)
Step 5. Determine which brand and size of mineral wool you choose. Divide the total area of insulation by the area of each individual slab of insulation. Then increase the result by 10-15% for the reserve.
The figure you received is the number of mineral wool slabs that will be needed for one layer of external insulation of a wooden house. At the same time, keep in mind that several panels of insulation are sold in one package and, as a rule, it is written on them how many square meters this pack is designed for.
ROCKWOOL Light Butts Mineral Wool. One such pack contains six slabs 50 mm thick and 600x800 mm in size. Their total area is 2.
88 square meters.
Step 6. Determine how thick the insulation should be. As a rule, in the southern regions it is 50 mm, in the middle lane - 100 mm, in Siberia and northern latitudes - 150 mm. If it will be impossible to carry out insulation in one layer in your case, double the number of mineral wool slabs from the previous operation.
Recommended thickness of insulation for different cities, depending on climate and latitudes
First of all, you will need something with which to cut and saw the materials for the lathing. If the frame for the insulation is made of wood, a electric jigsaw with an appropriate blade will perfectly cope with this task.But in the case when the crate is made from a metal profile, it is better to give preference to metal scissors .
Shears for metal. Well suited for cutting frame profiles
Important! The use of a grinder to cut a profile on a frame for insulation is permissible, but undesirable - in the process of such sawing, the external anti-corrosion coating is damaged, which significantly reduces the service life of the future structure.
Next, you need a tool for screwing screws into wood or metal. Considering that the work on insulation is carried out with a house made of timber or logs, only a screwdriver and a set of nozzles will be quite enough to complete this task. Choose a tool with a battery - the wire will not dangle under your feet and interfere.
Cordless screwdriver. Separately, it is worth noting a convenient fastening for various attachments on the tool handle
Tip! Experienced craftsmen use a screwdriver with two batteries.
While one is working, the second is charging. Then they change places, and a person gets the opportunity to install the crate for insulation without stopping and losing time.
You will need a hammer or rubber mallet to fit some of the batten timber or to work with poppet dowels.
One of the indispensable tools for construction work is a knife for cutting mineral wool. You will need it to open packages of mineral wool and to cut slabs of this material.
Alternatively, you can use a construction knife with a retractable blade.
Knife for cutting insulation materials
Securing the windproof membrane to the insulating lath requires a construction stapler and a set of staples .
Construction stapler and a set of staples
The lathing for insulation should be as straight as possible horizontally and vertically. It is almost impossible to achieve this by eye, so be sure to use the building level and the plumb line .
Plumb line and building level
The wall of the house itself from a bar or a log house and all wooden elements of the lathing require the mandatory application of several layers of antiseptic, protecting materials from decay.
To do this, you will need a container and a roller. But if you want to get things done quickly, use the Paint Sprayer .
A spray gun (also known as a spray gun) with a compressor
Both before and during the work on the insulation of a wooden house by the master you may need to apply various marks, measure distances and create records.These tasks are successfully accomplished with a pencil, a few sheets of paper (or one notebook), a tape measure, and a carpenter's square.
Let's first consider the most common option, when mineral wool is placed between the elements of the lathing made of wooden beams.
Step 1. Prepare the walls - remove all protruding elements from their surface, if any. These can be shutters, ebbs, decorative details, etc. Then treat the wall with an antiseptic and fire retardant, preferably 2-3 times. Apply a new layer only after the previous one has completely dried.
Important! When working with a log house, pay special attention to processing the corners and end parts of the logs - they are most susceptible to the influence of fungi and other microorganisms.
Step 2. Make the crate. For it, take the highest quality timber, in this case, products with a section of 30x30 mm are used. The wood should not show signs of fungus or rot.
First, install the upper and lower bars, fix them with galvanized self-tapping screws (using others is undesirable due to corrosion). Then install the horizontal elements of the battens, between which the mineral wool of the first layer will be laid. The spacing between the beams should be about 5 mm less than the height of the insulation plate - this is necessary for a more tight fixing of the material and eliminating gaps.
Securing the bottom element of the battens
Scheme of arranging the battens for two-layer insulation. As a material, in addition to timber, you can use a plasterboard profile
On top of the first "layer" of the lathing, fix the second, where the elements are located perpendicularly. In this case, they are mounted vertically. Also, do not forget to secure the bars around the perimeter of window and door openings.
In this image you can see two layers of insulation and, accordingly, two battens, one superimposed on the other
Bars from two layers of lathing, laid and fixed around the perimeter of the window opening
Step 4. Unpack and prepare the mineral wool slabs.
If necessary, cut them into pieces for installation around openings and in other places where full-size insulation will not fit. Place the slabs between the elements of the battens of the first layer, make sure that they are tightly held there. Fix them with disc dowels. Then, according to the same principle, lay the plates of the second layer of insulation. It is desirable that they overlap the horizontal joints between the mineral wool sheets of the previous layer.
Laying mineral wool
The wall of a wooden house is insulated
Step 5. Lay and secure a windproof membrane on top of the insulation.Butt its individual segments together with an overlap of about 10 cm (as a rule, there is a special marking on the film for this). Attach the membrane to the crate with a construction stapler, and close the joints with special adhesive tape. Pay special attention to the openings, which also need to be covered, when working with the windscreen.
Fastening the windproof membrane
Step 6. Fasten thick slats on top of the windproof film on the wooden elements of the insulation crate , which will hold the exterior of the house.
Slats for external finishing of the facade
Step 7. Lay the external trim on the mounted slats. In this case, boards are used for this.
Then install other protruding features such as window and sheds, shutters, slopes, decorative details, and more.
Example of a cladded wall of a wooden house
Now Consider another option for outdoor insulation of the house. Here, mineral wool is not attached to the crate, but to metal brackets.
Step 1. Prepare the walls - treat them with antiseptic and fire retardant.
Then, unpack the mounting brackets and calculate how many you need.
Rock wool bracket
Step 2. Secure the metal brackets to the wall using two long roofing screws with press washers. Since the house will subsequently be finished with siding, the fasteners are positioned with a step corresponding to the interval between the lathing elements for vinyl panels.
Bracket attachment, arrow shows paronite lining
Important! For better sound and heat insulation, place small pieces of paronite under the part of the brackets that touches the wood.
Step 3. Unpack the mineral wool, check the quality of the insulation and prepare it for installation.
Unpacking the mineral wool
Step 4. Install the mineral wool slabs on the walls. To do this, put them on the brackets mounted in the previous stages of work.
The holes for this can either be pushed through by the fasteners themselves, or cut with a knife.
Laying mineral wool
Insulation plate mounted on brackets
Step 5. For better fixing, screw the disc dowels evenly over the area of each individual plate.
Using the Belleville Dowel
Step 6. Repeat the previous two steps for all walls and gables of the house.
The wall is insulated
Step 7. Place a windproof film on top of the insulation layer. Fasten it with an overlap with disc dowels.
Attaching the windscreen
Installation process of the windscreen
Step 8. Use a knife or scissors to cut the slots in the windscreen through which the ends of the brackets should pass.
The ends of the bracket went through the pre-made slots
Step 9. Prepare, cut and fasten to the brackets using self-tapping screws, vertical and horizontal elements of the lathing from a metal profile. In this case, it is very important to achieve the evenness of each individual post or beam using a plumb line and a building level.
Example of arranging a metal lathing
Step 10. On the lathing, equipped in the previous operation, install an external finishing.
In this case, these are vinyl siding panels.
A wooden house is sheathed with vinyl siding
With a competent approach to business, external insulation of a wooden house will provide you with coziness and comfort of living in a new place ...
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