Only a warm house can be cozy. If we can not talk about installing an air conditioner in a frame house, then it is necessary to take care of the insulation of the walls, ceiling, floor. There are many different materials on the market today. In this article, we will tell you about the various ways to use such a long-known material for thermal insulation as sawdust in a frame house. Despite a number of disadvantages, sawdust is still very popular.
If we take into account their features and carefully observe the technology of application, sawdust will serve a long and loyal service as a heater.
First of all, let us consider why sawdust is used to insulate a wooden house.
The main advantages of sawdust are low price and excellent thermal insulation properties. In addition, it is a completely natural material, which cannot be said about more modern thermal insulators. This is important for allergy sufferers and families with children, as well as for people trying to minimize the presence of chemicals in the home.
After all, any modern materials emit those substances that they contain, and this can affect the health of the inhabitants of the house.
The disadvantages include a slight fire and the fact that rodents can start in untreated sawdust. These moments can be circumvented by treating sawdust with antiseptics - a solution of copper sulfate or boric acid. In addition, to improve the properties, sawdust is mixed with other materials (clay, lime, cement, gypsum). The disadvantages of working with sawdust can also be attributed to the rather laborious technology of their use.
Before talking about application technology, consider the quality of the source material. When buying sawdust for home insulation, we recommend taking into account several features. The first thing to look out for is the size of the sawdust. Their properties as insulation directly depend on this.
The second property of sawdust that you need to pay attention to is their moisture content. It is important that the material you use to insulate your home is dry, as wet sawdust will rot and attract bugs. In the shop for processing freshly sawn wood, sawdust will be wet, it is better to prefer the waste from the shop for cutting boards, since before this work the wood is thoroughly dried.
In the case where the origin of the sawdust is unknown, you can check them for moisture yourself: if, when squeezed into a fist, they crumble and crunch, then the product is dry, and if they gather in lumps, - wet.
Wet sawdust can be dried, but it will take time and space.
You can spread the sawdust over the summer in a dry, ventilated room (for example, in the attic), and mix them periodically.
Can be used to insulate the ceiling with sawdust without filler.
In this case, you need to fill in two layers: the first - a larger fraction or shavings, the second - a small one.
The first layer is needed to keep dust out of the premises.
The second layer will actually provide thermal insulation properties. In general, the layer thickness should be 20-30 cm.
In a wooden house, about 20% of the heat goes through the ceiling, so its insulation is especially important.
It is best to do this in the summer, so that by the onset of cold weather the solution has acquired sufficient strength.
Before proceeding with the insulation of the ceiling with sawdust, it is necessary to carry out a special treatment of wooden structures. First, an antiseptic agent is applied to them, then - compounds that protect against fire and insects, then - from moisture. After that, you need to seal the cracks: large - with foam, small - with sealants.
To prepare a mixture with cement, it is better to take sawdust aged for at least a year, so that they are dry enough, otherwise the cement will not set.
For such a mixture, medium-sized sawdust is best suited - for small ones, more cement will be required, and the thermal insulation properties of the solution will decrease.
To protect against fire, lime is added to the mixture, and against mold it is treated with an antiseptic - boric acid or copper sulfate.
To calculate the amount of mortar required for insulation of the ceiling, we will determine the thickness of the layer. For houses in which they will live all year round, the insulation layer should be 30 cm, for seasonal residence - 25 cm. Cement, sawdust and lime are mixed in a ratio of 10: 1: 1.
Then you should dilute vitriol or boric acid, and pour a watering can over the mixture, stirring thoroughly. This will take 5-10 liters of water. The finished solution can be checked by squeezing it with your hand. If at the same time the solution does not release moisture, and the resulting lump does not fall apart, then you can start laying.
When insulating a ceiling in a wooden house, a vapor-permeable material must be used as a substrate that will not allow sawdust to crumble.
This is important, since warm air always rises to the ceiling, and if it lingers at the top, condensation will appear. As a result, bacteria can appear and multiply in the overlap. Any cardboard will be a suitable material, as long as it is dry.
To lay the insulation over the entire working surface of the ceiling, you need to spread cardboard in several layers, seal the joints with staples, and treat the edge of the room with a sealant. Then you can evenly distribute the prepared mixture and tamp well.
You should try to finish the installation as soon as possible, since the cement begins to harden in half an hour, and after that it will no longer be possible to tamp it.
The finished thermal insulation layer should be left for two weeks for it to gain its properties. A properly made layer should emit a crunch when walking and should not bend.
Wet sawdust can also be used to insulate the ceiling. In this case, the technology will be different.
You can take sawdust those that have been stored for a year with a slight excess of humidity, but first make sure that microorganisms have not grown in them.
Preparation of the composition:
Do not forget to treat the sawdust with lime or vitriol before mixing.
Ratio of ingredients: sawdust - 20 parts, water - 3 parts, cement - 2 parts. First we recommend mixing sawdust and cement, then adding liquid in small portions.
A substrate or sand is laid and fixed on the working surface, then add and compact the thermal insulation mixture in small portions with a layer of 5-10 cm After hardening, the mixture acquires sufficient strength, so that it can be walked on, however, for the preservation of the layer, we recommend laying a floor of boards over it.
Another variant of the mixture for thermal insulation of the ceiling of a wooden house is sawdust with clay. Pour water over five buckets of clay, leave for a while. When the clay gets wet, you need to stir it so that it becomes homogeneous. Then add the resulting mixture to the sawdust, bringing the mass to medium density.
For laying a mixture of clay with sawdust, you can cover the working surface with glassine or film, fix it with a stapler.
The layer thickness for rooms that are used in summer will be 5 cm, for winter rooms - 10-12 cm. The mortar should be tamped down with a flat object and left to dry for two days. Then fill in the cracks and leave to dry. A completely mixture of clay and sawdust will dry in 1-2 weeks.
Thermal insulation of the floor with sawdust is a good idea for a wooden house, but not an easy task.
It should be borne in mind that if the created thermal insulation layer sags, it will be difficult to add additional material to it - the floor will need to be opened.
Therefore, we recommend giving preference to materials that do not shrink during operation.
This means that pure sawdust is not suitable for floor insulation in the house - you need to use mixtures with fillers, which will eventually have a solid consistency. In particular, the already mentioned cement or gypsum can be used as an additive to sawdust.
As with the thermal insulation of the ceiling, before preparing the mixture, it is necessary to protect the sawdust from rodents and bacteria.
For this, dry slaked lime and copper sulfate are added to the sawdust.
The components can be mixed in the following proportions: sawdust - 85%, gypsum or cement - 5%, slaked lime - 10 %. When choosing a filler material, it should be remembered that gypsum sets faster than cement, therefore, if you want more time for laying and tamping, choose cement. In this technique, the sawdust may be slightly damp. If they are too dry, you can add water or milk of lime to them.
For ease of use, we recommend preparing the solution in small portions.
The sequence of laying the floor insulation material is the same as described for the ceiling insulation. If there is a floor covering in the room, it must be removed, the floors must be treated with an antiseptic and moisture protection, then the film must be laid out and fixed. Then you can knead, lay and tamp the prepared solution. On the ground floor, its layer should be 10 cm, and between floors - 30 cm.
It will take from 2 weeks to a month to dry and finally harden the thermal insulation.
In order to insulate the walls of a house with sawdust, you need to carry out some preparation. First, it is necessary to ensure fire safety.
Make sure that all places of potential fire (switches, sockets, chimneys, heating pipes) are securely protected with non-combustible material. Wiring should be enclosed in metal tubes with a wall thickness of more than 3 mm.
Next, you need to mount the frame, on which you will need to place the thermal insulation solution. To do this, we stuff wooden slats with a crate on the wall.
For wall insulation, you can take fairly large dry sawdust, make sure they are free of mold. For the solution, 10 parts of sawdust, 1 part of gypsum or cement with lime, 5-10 liters of water are needed. Stir the components, making sure that the solution does not become too dry or wet (the solution should collect in a lump, but not disintegrate).
During mixing, you need to spray the solution with an antiseptic from a watering can (usually boric acid is used for this).
We fill the prepared frame with the ready-made mortar to the level of the crate, carefully tamp it during work, in order to avoid further shrinkage.
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