The wooden floor in the house is a comfortable natural covering, time-tested. But even in modern life, with the widest choice of many different finishing materials, it has not lost its relevance. In fact, there is nothing surprising in this: environmentally friendly natural materials have always been in demand, even when there are alternative options.
. How to put to make a quality result? The existing installation rules should be strictly observed - rough floors, insulate well. Proper thermal insulation and waterproofing is of great importance when installing a wooden floor. What are the advantages of a wood floor?
Wood has unique qualities that are not found in other building materials.
Before installation such a floor, first of all, you need to decide on its type. For this purpose, different materials can be used, and depending on this, there are several types of wood coverings. These can be boards made from solid wood.
A characteristic feature of this material is that on both sides of each board there are special grooves and tongues.
Such material can measure from two meters to six, the thickness of each board reaches six centimeters.
Such raw materials are perfect for arranging the floor in a private wooden house or in the country. The use of this method of flooring has been carried out for a long time. Another type of raw material for flooring is parquet. Everyone is probably familiar with him, not just builders.
These are narrow, short boards, fitted with tongue and groove on all four sides.
The third type of wood flooring is solid parquet. It is also equipped with tongues and grooves on all sides. The material can have a length of half a meter to two meters, a thickness of 1.8 to 2.5 centimeters.
Such a parquet board differs from the previous type in that it consists of several different layers.
Usually floor in a house or garage laid from ordinary planed boards. However, in this case, the choice of material of proper quality should be taken with all care.
Floorboards should not be damp or too dry. If you use poor-quality material, then over time, the surface of the wooden floor can noticeably deform.
The boards must be free from cracks, blackness, chips or rot. Breeds such as oak or birch are best suited for such purposes, but this is not a matter of principle.
Planks are used with a length of two meters (for arranging a floor in a garage) and longer (for a home).
Before use, all materials must be carefully treated with an antiseptic from the inside.
A special composition is designed to protect wood from damage by microorganisms, including molds.
It is also advisable to process the material with fire-fighting compounds that lower its combustible qualities. Before the direct flooring, the boards should be leveled with a plane and sanded so that the front side is smooth, without chips or burrs.
The construction of a wooden floor also means preparing the base for it. Base requires logs. These are massive wooden beams with a cross section of 50/100 or 50/80 millimeters.
They are placed relative to the location of the windows in the building.
Logs should be at right angles to sheer sun rays. They themselves are located either above the ground or on a prepared concrete base.
A certain advantage of this method is that electric cables can be placed in the space between the lags. To reliably protect the wooden floor from moisture penetration, a waterproofing material is laid on the ground or concrete coating (existing base).
For this purpose, thick plastic wrap is often used. This material is available in rolls.
It is spread throughout the entire site, and must be overlapped by 10-15 centimeters. Along the edges of the perimeter of the film, from the side of the walls, a small allowance is also required. Separate sheets of insulation are securely and hermetically connected to each other with adhesive tape.
When the waterproofing layer is laid, proceed to the next stage.
Lags as the basis of a wooden floor are easy to install. Before starting work, the bar must lie down for a while to acclimatize. Only after that they start laying: the beams are arranged parallel, the distance between the individual logs depends on how thick the board is planned to be laid. If boards with a thickness of 40 centimeters are used, then the step should be approximately 80 centimeters.
If the prepared material has a smaller thickness, then this indicator is reduced to half a meter.
All logs must be placed exclusively at the same level, and always horizontally. For the job to be done properly, use a laser level, filament and rule. To properly adjust the level of the beams, use auxiliary means - homemade wedges.
To make them, you can use the usual sheet plywood.
It is cut into pieces of 15 by 12 centimeters in size. Three or four wedges should fall on one bar: they are fixed on both sides of the bar, at one point. They are attached to the base of the floor with self-tapping screws or ordinary nails (to a wooden base). To the concrete base - with dowels and anchors.
Particular attention is paid to the fact that the beams must be placed necessarily perpendicular to the boards.
First, at opposite walls, two beams are laid, between which a thread is drawn. Already at this mark (thread), the rest of the beams will be mounted. The logs are also attached to the base of the floor itself by means of self-tapping screws or dowels.
In order for the lumber floor to be warm enough during use, a layer of thermal insulation material must be placed between the beams.
It is good to use mineral wool in this capacity.
Fibreboard slabs laid in two or three layers are quite suitable for warming a wooden floor. The base for the planks is prepared.
Only after placing the thermal insulation layer can you go directly to the plank flooring.
At a distance of one and a half centimeters from the wall, put and fix the first board. If the floor material is short, then you can stack two boards in a row.
The joint of these boards must be exactly in the middle of the beams.
To make the material fit more closely and tightly, it can be fastened together with special metal staples. The most extreme board is nailed to the log. For this, nails measuring 6 centimeters are perfect. All other boards are attached by means of self-tapping screws, for which holes of a given size are drilled.
The distance between them can vary from 20 to 30 centimeters.
In those places where utility pipes are located in the floor, holes should also be made, 5-10 millimeters in diameter larger than that of the pipe itself. Then you need to close all the cracks. For this, a pre-prepared plinth is used, which is fixed along the entire length of the perimeter by means of nails or self-tapping screws.
What other material can be used for laying wooden floors? Sheets of ordinary plywood, it can also be used to equip warm floors.
Several layers of this material are laid on the already mounted logs. Plywood gives the floor additional rigidity, provides the surface with a clear, even profile. When the work is finished, the surface is covered with two or more layers of paint or special varnish. This will not only protect the surface of the material, but make it more attractive and give it some elegance.
To make a wooden floor in a foam concrete house or frame house on your own, you must have a set of necessary materials and tools.
Self-tapping screws, anchor, dowels or nails will be needed as fasteners for wood material. It will be necessary to purchase the wooden material itself for the flooring: beams, boards, plywood. A nail puller (if necessary, dismantling the old coating), a stapler for fixing the boards, and a mount will not be superfluous.
Hand-made installation of a wooden floor is a rather complicated and responsible procedure.
But with a detailed and clearly scheduled work plan, you can cope with it without the help of specialists. In order for a self-made floor to be strong and reliable, special attention should be paid to the choice of material.
The thicker and more massive the boards are, the more solid the floor will be, and the longer it will last. Correct fastening of the material is also essential. The strength of the future wooden floor largely depends on the location technology of the beams that serve as logs.
To keep the home cozy and warm, the floor must be insulated. A layer of reliable waterproofing is also an integral part of the coating. Even a small amount of trapped moisture can damage the wood material.
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