Recently in construction, facades of houses are more and more often trimmed with facing tiles.
When erecting buildings made of bricks, aerated concrete blocks, monolithic concrete, the question of using one of the types of tiled cladding often arises.
The climatic features of most of our regions are such that the seasonal temperature changes dramatically in a fairly significant range.
Differences can be up to sixty degrees, and in some areas even more. To insulate a home and protect the facade from the effects of aggressive climatic conditions, our fellow citizens have to use durable and reliable materials.
One of the representatives of such materials is ceramic tiles.
The most popular representatives of such tiles on the Russian market today are clinker tiles and ceramic granite.
The reason for their relevance and relevance was the rational ratio of price and quality.
Indeed, it is often the financial ability of the homeowner that affects the choice of finishing.
If funds allow, then you can stop at products made from natural materials.
If not, you can always use artificial analogs. Their traditional representatives are:
It should be noted that both their aesthetic and functional characteristics of the material do not differ much from the expensive natural material. Let's consider them separately.
For the manufacture of facade ceramic granite tiles, they use virtually the same materials as for similar products for interior decoration.
Both tiles necessarily include kaolin, clay and mineral components. But in the production process, porcelain stoneware undergoes a special treatment, which ensures its enhanced strength characteristics. They surpass ordinary ceramics by almost ten times.
Porcelain stoneware tiles are subjected to very high pressures in specially designed presses. Such processing makes it impossible for the formation of even very tiny, microscopic pores in the clay.
After such compression, the material undergoes heat treatment, for which ultra-high temperatures (over 1300 degrees) are used. In the process of such processing, the tile becomes almost a monolith, which in its working qualities almost does not differ from natural stone.
This finishing material has significant differences from the porcelain stoneware described above. With its shape and surface texture, clinker is more like bricks of different colors.
How is this finishing material produced?
Separate bricks of specified shapes and sizes are squeezed out of the mass of raw materials by a special press, which then undergo special heat treatment for one and a half days.
As a result of this effect, the material becomes resistant to temperature changes and mechanical stress. In addition, it acquires the ability to absorb absolutely no water.
The facade of a house with such facing tiles does not need complex maintenance, and it does not require repairs for a long period.
There are two different cladding methods :
The specific choice of the appropriate method depends on some characteristics, namely:
Facing the facade of a building with one or another type of tile, the method of gluing is not too different from laying it on the walls inside the building or on the floor. However, there are significant differences. For external finishing, a special cement-adhesive product is needed, which must be frost-resistant so that it can withstand not only sharply negative temperatures, but also drops in their indicators.
In addition, it is necessary to carry out work only at positive temperatures - from 5 to 25 degrees. Higher or lower temperatures can have a detrimental effect on cement-glue mixtures that have not yet dried.
It is important to remember that the method of gluing should not be resorted to in cases where large or heavy porcelain stoneware tiles are selected for cladding. The problem is that there is some probability of the tiles coming off, which, when falling, can injure people nearby.
All upcoming procedures related to decorating a house with tiles in this way, we will conditionally divide into several main stages.
1st stage. Estimated
Even before purchasing finishing materials , you will need to calculate the area of the facade surface to be pasted over.
The length of the wall is multiplied by its height. By the same analogy, the area of the door and all window openings located on this wall is calculated. We subtract the second from the first indicator, and we get the net area to be clad. In exactly the same way, we find out the area of the remaining walls of the building.
Purchase of materials
The next step is to purchase the required number of tiles.
3rd stage. Preparatory
Next comes the preparation of the walls. They must be carefully aligned and primed .If this requires more material for plastering, it is advisable to use a reinforcing mesh.
With the help of the level, the "skipping" of the lower boundary of the working surface of the wall is made.
4th stage. Mounting
To ensure better adhesion of the wall to the tile, it is advisable to apply the adhesive to both the wall surface and the tile as well. Work should be done carefully, paying attention to the fact that the glue does not fill the seams. They will be processed later.
Sometimes the owners of frame houses are interested in whether it is possible to tile a house if it is faced with plywood or OSB. Are façade tiles glued to them?
Technically, of course, this is possible.
The question is: is it worth doing? Before making a decision, you need to make sure that the main building structure is not affected by this.
If we are talking about the outer cladding of a sheathed log house or frame house, we should think several times. Indeed, to prevent waterlogging, fibrous insulation and wooden structures of the building must be ventilated. Moisture removal takes place in two different ways.
There is an air gap
A special air gap is arranged under the outer layer of DSP, OSB or plywood (outer skin), at the top and bottom of the walls that does not interfere with the free flow of air.
If the structure has such a structure, then there are no significant restrictions for tiling outside.
Method two. No air gap
This air gap is not always available. If it is absent, then water vapor should be removed through the sheathing itself - OSB or plywood.
If, however, most of the facade of such a house without a ventilation gap is tiled with porcelain stoneware or ceramic tiles, a significant increase in the moisture content of the wood may occur, the insulation may also get wet.
As a consequence of this - damage and decay of individual parts of the wooden frame, warpage and flaking of sheet material.The insulation loses its heat-insulating qualities. Full wall cladding of such buildings is out of the question. Limited areas (small inserts, door and window frames) can be tiled.
However, no matter how hard the craftsmen try, on wooden lightweight structures experiencing periodic deformations, the tile will definitely hold worse than on solid mineral bases (plaster, concrete, LSU, gypsum plasterboard on a metal frame).
Experts do not recommend finishing large surface areas of frame structures with facing tiles.
For this, it is better to use alternative materials such as flexible façade tiles.
If the base, consisting of plywood or OSB, is slightly deformed, then the tile will also stretch a little, bend, but will not crack and fall off like a stone or ceramic.
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