The familiar and familiar traditional slate does not belong to innovative products in any way. However, it remains popular in our domestic market: consumers value it for its reliability and durability.
Besides, it has a very affordable price. Not surprisingly, homeowners are still interested in the method of laying slate with their own hands .
Today there are many types of roofing for various purposes.
The slate can be painted in the desired color, selected specifically to match or contrast to the color of the facade. The material is actively used to cover outbuildings, country cottages and full-fledged residential buildings.
Slate has a fairly long service life. But in order for him to honestly serve the allotted time, he must be laid according to all the rules.
And this process is not as simple as it might seem.
Although it is not difficult, there are some important nuances to be known.
Slate is not an absolutely universal roofing material, suitable for all types of roofing without exception.
Therefore, it is important to rely on some facts:
Slate can be fiber-cement or asbestos-cement. In terms of their technical characteristics, they are not too different.
But asbestos, which is not part of the second type, deprives it of its increased strength, although the existing one is quite enough: the material can easily withstand the weight of an adult.
In addition to composition, there is one more difference - sheets can be made from unpressed or pressed material.
The quality of the latter is an order of magnitude higher:
In shape, both types can be of different configurations - wavy and flat. Wavy material has its own gradation, the number of waves in the sheet depends on its size.
By in comparison with other materials and despite the familiarity of the material and the tradition of its use, not many people know about its outstanding properties :
Like any other material, this one also has not only advantages, but also some disadvantages:
Therefore, for objects located in the immediate vicinity of people, it is better to prefer the cement-fiber type of material. Although it is quite successfully used for the roof of a house;
If you have to remove the old coating before starting installation work, do not be alarmed.
There is nothing particularly complicated in the process. The main thing in it is a competent distribution of roles and a good, convenient tool.
Remember the fragility of the material. Considering that even old sheets can be successfully used in a private household, do not throw sheets off the roof. Remove and discharge material carefully, in the opposite sequence to assembly.
Entire installation workflow can be subdivided into three important stages: preparatory measures, lathing devices and direct material laying.
Correct slate installation - the importance of waterproofing
There are many different waterproofing materials , but as for the roofing - the most suitable option for it is most often polypropylene film. It is fastened up with the glossy side to the rafters.
The pile located on the inside will become an additional obstacle for moisture. This is especially important if an insulating layer is located under the waterproofing. It is allowed to use two layers of film.
Fixation is carried out with a construction stapler. For comfortable work, you need at least two pairs of working hands.
One master gradually rolls and pulls the film from a roll, the second attaches it to the rafters. The joints of the film should be reinforced with construction tape or sealant. On top of the insulating layer, you can begin the installation of the battens.
Installation of battens is one of the most important stages. What to look for?
Only really dry wood can be used for this element.
If the moisture percentage exceeds 12, then the finished crate will not have stability. Drying, individual beams will begin to decrease in size, and the crate will begin to "float".
Several different types of wood can be used to make a reliable frame. These are aspen, pine, spruce and fir. Before work, the bars must be impregnated with an antiseptic, treated with resin or linseed oil, and covered with one of the fire retardants.
The length of the beams is calculated according to the number and size of slate sheets: they can be either 6.5 m or 3.5 m. The ideal option is if the slate does not have to be cut along the edges of the roof, that is, the slope will definitely be closed with solid sheets.
The size of the beams 60 by 60 mm is considered universal for lathing.
In fact, it would be most correct to select their section based on the thickness of the prepared slate - from 50 to 75 mm.
The distance between the individual bars is directly related to the grade of the material:
It is very important that this distance is the same over the entire roof area.
Sometimes bars are used that differ in width: there is nothing wrong with that. The widest ones are located at the ridge and where there will be joints of individual sheets.
The bar closest to the ridge is placed with an edge, rising above the rest of the slate thickness (1-3.5 cm): for cornice bars, the indicator is from 6 to 10 mm (also with an edge).
The lathing beams are attached to the rafters from below, taking into account 30-50 cm of overhang. In the process of laying, all important construction nuances are taken into account, especially for cornices and places near pipes.
Slate sheets stacking order
Slate sheets are fixed to the crate with special galvanized nails.
To make the holes, you need a drill with a diameter of 2 mm larger than that of nails.
To protect the roof from possible leaks, nails are driven into the crest of the wave through a washer with a rubber pad. The work is carried out neatly, do not go too deep: contact with the slate should be minimal. Otherwise, even with a small temperature difference, a crack may form on the material.
Installation usually starts from the bottom of the windier side of the roof.
It is very important how the first slate sheet is laid, setting the tone for the rest: the evenness of its laying is controlled by a plumb line.
The overlap of the next rows of slate sheets depends directly on the slope of the roof (at rates from 20 to 45 degrees, 10 cm of overlap will be enough).
There are two slate installation methods :
The first option is easier to work with, and, accordingly, is more popular.
Already at the stage of purchasing slate, it is desirable to have at least an approximate plan of its laying on the roof.
This will allow you to more accurately determine the amount of material required, which is better to buy with a small stock.
Before starting work, the material should be prepared, inspected for cracks or chips. Damaged sheets are not used. With the help of grinder sheets going into work are cut off. Experts advise pre-wetting the places of future incisions.
The direct installation of the slate starts at the bottom . For one of the upper corners, the sheet is attached to the crate, docked with the edge of the roof itself. After that, it is fixed in different corners with three more nails, one of which is certainly driven into the crest of the wave. The next sheet is fixed in the same way, with one or two overlap waves.
Along the entire perimeter of the roof, the bottom row is laid in this way, each sheet with four nails.
The next row, the second, begins with half of the bottom slate. So you should go further, with an overlap on the sheet below, and on the previous sheet of the same row. This is the "runaway" effect.
So fill one slope completely with slate. The last row in front of the ridge requires ventilation.
After that, they move on to the next ramp. The roof covering formed in the process of these works outwardly resembles a kind of chessboard.
We have already noted above that this method is more labor-intensive. But the roofing surface in this case is obtained without gaps, perfectly flat. Therefore, it is capable of serving much longer than the intended "runaway".
And much less material is required.
Laying slate with undercut: work steps
Here, too, a roof layout is required, as in the first case. The amount of required material that needs to be purchased and its competent preparation depend on the correct calculations. We select a specific slope from which the installation will begin. There is no consensus here - some like it on the left, some on the right, there is no fundamental difference here.
In our example, we will consider the option from right to left.
Preparing slate sheets. Which corner do you need to cut? Its dimensions are 120-140 mm at the side and 103 mm at the top.
When trimming, it is important to consider the following:
( 5 marks, average 2.4 of 5 )
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