As a rule, when building a country house, the project provides for the construction of a basement. The basement is a very useful and multifunctional part of the house, where not only home preservation can be stored, but also garden utensils, tools, wine is prepared, and if desired, the basement can be converted into a living room.
If the house built of heavy materials, has a strip foundation, it will be more expedient to think over the basement in advance, this will help save on materials. Basements in such houses have a first floor layout. The recommended height of the walls is 180-220 cm.
First, a pit is dug out with the help of special equipment or manually , the size of which exceeds the planned basement by 30-50 cm. The bottom of the pit is strengthened with a sand-crushed stone pillow. A concrete wall is installed on the pillow, which serves as the foundation for the entire building. To waterproof the basement, 2-3 layers of roofing material are laid on a concrete slab. A concrete layer is again poured on top of the roofing material, on which the basement walls will rest.
Depending on the project of the house, the walls are built of bricks, wood, foam blocks or other materials. Various materials, mastics, roll insulators and so on are used to waterproof the basement from the inside.
Be sure to provide ventilation to prevent dampness in the basement. If the basement will be used as a living space, we advise you to insulate the walls. The best insulation will be foam, this fire-resistant material has good thermal conductivity.
Polyfoam can also be used to insulate the floor. The basement floor can be concrete, wood, tiled or linoleum. To ensure a flat surface, finishing materials are laid on the reinforced concrete floor.
But what if the basement was not provided during the construction of the house?
In this case, the basement can be built with your own hands, however, for the owners of heavy houses this task will become somewhat more complicated, while the owners of small wooden dachas are quite capable of quickly making a basement without much complexities.
First of all, you need to determine the water level in your area.
If the groundwater is close to the foundation of the house, water will collect in the basement. Then it is better to confine ourselves to a shallow underground with a height of 120-150 cm .
If during the study of the site it was determined that the groundwater will not damage the construction of the basement, you can start choosing a place for the basement. As a rule, basements are built under the kitchen or corridor.
In order to save on construction and materials, experts recommend building a basement not under the whole house, but under its part.
In this case, the basement will have its own walls made of brick, concrete or reinforced concrete.
It is very important to waterproof the basement inside or outside.
Since a room located at such a depth will be significantly exposed to moisture. When the soil is dry, it is advised to treat the walls with bitumen , and if the soil is wet, it is pasted over with roofing material or with polyethylene film .
To ensure ventilation, an exhaust pipe is laid under the ceiling of the basement, facing the street or through the house. Ventilation is necessary for the penetration of fresh air into the basement, which directly determines the duration of storage of products.
The pipe leading to the street is covered with a kind of roof to avoid snow or rainwater getting into the cellar. Experts advise using a pipe with a diameter of at least 140x140 mm.
There is equipment that creates artificial ventilation in the basement, but it is quite expensive and can be used without extreme necessity do not advise.
Care should be taken to maintain a blind area around the basement to prevent rain or melt water from entering the basement walls. Water gradually seeps into the room, then the basement is filled with dampness, mold may appear, and in winter, when frozen water expands, this can lead to the destruction of the building material.
The width of the blind area depends on the soil and is usually 50-100 cm , it is made of various materials of concrete slabs, stones, bricks, etc.
If there is little space on the site, or simply in order to save money, the basement is often converted into a sauna or bath.
For a comfortable stay, the size of the sauna should be 12-15 sq. m. Instead of a pool, you can equip showers that do not take up much space and protect the basement from water.
An electric oven is used for the steam room. The gas stove will be more economical, but it will not be possible to install it by itself. The permit, as well as the installation itself, is carried out by gas services.
Many owners like to equip a billiard room or a full bedroom in the basement.
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