Cellar is a place where you can store almost any food. The main advantage of this building, when compared with a conventional pantry, is obvious - in it you can keep salted or fresh vegetables and fruits, and a variety of preservation. All year round, the temperature in the cellar does not exceed 7 ° C, which is almost the temperature of the refrigerator.
There are several types of cellars . The simplest is earthen.
You can also build a cellar in the garage. There are also such cellars as above ground, with a cellar, glacier cellar, blocked cellar, etc.
How to make a cellar with your own hands?
The arrangement of the cellar must begin with choosing a place. A dry area, on a hill, would be ideal. Such a place is not subject to moisture, and during construction you will not need to additionally waterproof the cellar.
Rainwater will not accumulate near the walls of the cellar, it will simply flow down the slope. The depth of the cellar will also depend on your wishes. Usually it is 3 meters.
You also need to immediately decide which cellar you will build : under the house or garage, or maybe you want to build the structure as a separate building. But it is worth noting that building a cellar under the house is much better, because a separate structure will take up a lot of space.
And the cellar inside the house has a very convenient entrance, which is especially important in winter.
Having decided build a cellar with your own hands, think in advance about the materials. To select the right materials, the following important points should be noted: the type of soil and the level of groundwater.
The walls of the cellar can be constructed from a variety of materials, for example, rubble stone, red brick, wood, concrete, asbestos-cement sheets.
For vertical partitions, the wall thickness is 15 cm, and if you used brick, the thickness will be 25 cm.
The thickness of the rubble stone walls is also 25 cm. If you chose to build a cellar in the ground, then initially sheathe the cellar from the inside with wood. We do not recommend that you build a cellar from metal sheets, since there may be a problem with maintaining the required temperature.
First, what needs to be done is to dig a pit. The best time for construction is summer, as groundwater is at a minimum.
It is very important to choose the time as close as possible to non-settling, your foundation pit should not be flooded with water.
The storage pit should be very deep so that you don't have to bent over to walk on it. Make the pit oblong, since you need a place for gentle steps.
And the foundation pit should be half a meter larger than the final structure. This is necessary for the convenient execution of all construction work.
It is best to dig the hole yourself so as not to damage the soil layer.After the end of the first stage, cover the pit by constructing an overlap. You can use boards or logs for this purpose. Cover the tree with chopped straw and clay putty. After the putty is dry, fill the overlap with earth, first making a hole in it and inserting a pipe into it for natural ventilation.
For inexpensive cellars on the site need inexpensive materials for wall cladding. The most common and simplest are adobe walls.
To do this you will need: water, clay and chopped straw. Knead the solution until plastic and viscous.
Apply the solution in several layers, each time waiting for the previous layer to dry completely.
After that, you can sheathe the walls with a slab board.
You can also lay out the walls from old bricks, or simply fill them with concrete.
The earthen floor of the cellar contributes to better storage of vegetables and various products. The base of the pit is a well-tamped crushed stone, filled with bitumen on top. An adobe floor follows from above.
A cement screed is a good option.
For a more convenient cellar, you will have to build steps. Initially, it is necessary to dig the future stairs, and in place of the steps, thoroughly tamp the earth. Next, you need to make a plywood formwork on the side surfaces of the steps above the horizontal plane. Next, fill the step slabs with cement mortar.
About the steps must be bricked, and the treads of the slabs must be laid out of stone.
Self-construction of the cellar implies the protection of the upper parts of it. You can build a standard gable roof above the cellar, 50 cm larger than the cellar itself on each side.
Such measures will help prevent water from flowing into the cellar when it rains. Be sure to insulate the door with several layers of foam rubber, and then cover it with dermantine on top.
This is a rather important process. All waterproofing materials can be divided into two types: non-pressure and anti-pressure. The second type of materials is used if groundwater reaches the floor level from the side of the water pressure. The first type of materials is used if the groundwater level will not reach the floor.
The walls and floor must be watertight in the cellar.
Roofing material can be used as an increase in strength.
For better protection from water, use a drainage layer during construction. Drainage, as a rule, is connected to a special well located next to the cellar. Drainage is alternated with layers of soil, and when laying layers, it must be compacted.
To reduce groundwater, build a blind area - that is,a special container with a certain slope for water drainage.
If the cellar is protected from groundwater, then waterproofing can be done with heated bitumen. Before covering the walls with bitumen, be sure to treat them with cement mortar. Bitumen waterproofing is usually applied in two layers. As the bitumen dries, the walls are usually sprinkled with sand.
Proper ventilation is the key to successful storage products.
In the cellar, the hood can be of two types.
The first option is natural ventilation. It is carried out using two pipes: exhaust and supply. This hood is based on the temperature difference between the room and the street, which is why there is a continuous air circulation.
Usually the chimney is mounted near the ceiling, and its end is located half a meter higher than the cellar level.
T. about. heated air escapes. And at the bottom of the cellar, a supply pipe is installed 10 cm above the floor line. It must be protected with a metal mesh from pests and insects.
The second type of ventilation is forced. It is created using special fans. The device is the same as in the first case. This ventilation is necessary during the summer period, since there is no air exchange due to the increase in outside temperature.
Observing all technological conditions, you will build a high-quality and reliable cellar that will delight you for more than one decade.
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