Bath is a dream of almost any owner of a country house. And if the territory of the site allows, then why not take up its construction. One of the most important construction stages is the bath foundation. It is he who takes on the load that the structure exerts on him.
The base for a bathhouse can be easily made with your own hands, and given that this part of the building takes about 40% of the budget for the construction, why not save some money.
The main thing to understand is that this savings should not relate to the quality and quantity of materials, but to the ability to reduce the cost of the bath foundation by building it yourself, without attracting additional labor.
Before starting the main work, you need to prepare the site on which you are going to build a bathhouse. Remove stones, chop down trees if necessary, uproot stumps, remove debris. It is advisable to weed out the grass and greens, remove the top layer of soil.
Now it's time to mark the foundation under the bath with our own hands.
For this purpose, use metal rods (fittings), durable jute. It is very important to make the markings in such a way that the angle is 90º. To do this, you can use a square that is used in construction or what is at hand.
Note. Each side of the base of the bath should be 5 - 10 cm larger than the projected perimeter of the building.
How to choose a foundation for a bath?
In order to choose the best option for your bath, you need to take into account some factors:
The soil does not sink, the building does not lend itself to destruction and deformation.
Strip and columnar foundations for a bath with their own hands are most often used in practice. For the construction of a columnar base for a 6 x 4 m bath, you need to prepare materials and working tools.Such a foundation is most suitable for baths made of timber, foam block, aerated concrete. If logs or beams are used for the construction of a columnar foundation for a bath, you need to carefully cover it with waterproofing materials, and also treat it with antiseptics in order to prevent decay processes.
Note. Regardless of what material the pillars for the base of the bath will be created from, it is necessary to take care of waterproofing. As such materials, bituminous mastic or roofing material will fit.
Make holes in the soil with a drill or other tools. The diameter of these holes should correspond to the cross-section of the pillars, but it is better if it is 3-5 cm larger. The depth of the holes made should be at such a level that the supports do not reach the groundwater level and the soil freezing point. It is often enough to dig a hole 50 - 70 cm deep. Each depression must be covered by 1/3 of sand and gravel, then leveled, moistened and tamped.
Further, in the recesses of the pile foundation for the bath, you need to install pipes, which should be wrapped with roofing material or coated with bitumen before that. The space that remains after the installation of the supports is covered with earth mixed with sand. Pipes must be set strictly in level.
After the pipes are installed, concrete is poured into them, leaving about 30 cm of empty space on top. The pillar needs to be raised a little, for the solution to penetrate under the base of the pipe.
Then the reinforcement for the bath foundation is immersed in the solution and the pipe is completely filled with it. Complete hardening of the concrete solution occurs within a week, then the pillars are covered with waterproofing materials and the construction of the bath begins.
Note. The cost of a columnar base for a bath is less than a tape base. If you plan to build a small room, then its strength is quite enough for building from wood or foam block.
For the construction of a small bath a shallow tape base is ideal. In order to determine the optimal depth for the foundation for the bath, you need to find out the composition of the soil. For a stable soil, not heaving, with a normal level of moisture, a ditch 40 cm deep is enough.If your site is on black soil, peat soil or sandy - feel free to increase the depth to 70 -80 cm.
The width of the base is affected by the material from which the bathhouse will be built.
If it is light, 25 cm is enough. For walls made of brick, stone, you need at least 35 cm in width. The ditch itself is dug 5 cm wider.
On a previously prepared, level area, it is necessary to find a point at the lowest level, from which the construction of the foundation will be given. Also, a very important point is that in the process of building the correct foundation for the bath, it is necessary to make a slope in order to drain rain and melt water.
Otherwise, the accumulated water will lead to the destruction of the building. The tilt can be done in any direction except north.
At the corners, metal rods are installed, this must be done in order to stretch the jute around the perimeter. If we are talking about a strip foundation, then two contours are made (external and internal). To do this, pull two jutes in parallel and at a distance that corresponds to the width of the base with an additional 5 centimeters.
The next step is to dig a ditch. In the case of work on heaving soils, the ditch must be made in the form of an inverted trapezoid.
Important! The bottom of the dug trench should be flat, for this it is best to use the building level.
A cushion of sand and gravel ensures the stability of the foundation, smooths out possible soil movements. Sand is poured in the first layer, which must be moistened and carefully tamped.
Next, crushed stone is poured, which is also rammed, and then sand again. The alternation of layers must be done until the moat is 50% full.
If the area on which you are building the bath is characterized by too mobile soils, to give more stability to the foundation, you can additionally put a stone or brick in one layer on a cushion of gravel and sand.
After completing the work with the sand and gravel cushion, they begin to create the formwork for the bathhouse foundation with their own hands. It is built from boards, leaving the fasteners outside.
The structure must be complete without gaps between the elements. The evenness of the formwork ensures the evenness of the foundation. Otherwise, you will have to perform additional work on grinding the finished base. The bottom of the ditch is lined with wire and rods reinforcement. From the inside, the formwork is sheathed with roofing material or polyethylene.
This provides moisture protection.
It is necessary to pour concrete mortar into the formwork at one time. The slightest interruptions in this process should not be allowed, otherwise the foundation will turn out to be fragile and unreliable. To work quickly and efficiently, order a concrete mixer with ready-made cement mortar.
It is possible to remove the formwork after 7 days, and the process of building a bath can begin after 3 weeks.
During this time, concrete will acquire strength.
Note. Pouring the foundation for a bath with your own hands must be carried out at an outside air temperature of at least + 5 ° C, since concrete tends to solidify unevenly at a lower temperature.
An important rule of pouring concrete into the formwork, which must be followed, is that in which the solution is poured from a height of no more half a meter. This will prevent the formation of air bubbles.
After pouring the concrete, it is tamped with a vibrator or pierced in several places with a rod. For a stone oven in a bath, it is necessary to build a separate base. You can choose any - monolithic or tape.
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