DIY belt sander from a drill + photo and video
Most hobbyists use a hand-made grinding machine for a small amount of grinding (which is required from time to time).
As an abrasive tool in such devices, discs and belts made of cloth, as well as sanding paper, are usually used. This can be explained by the fact that they are inexpensive in cost and can be easily changed if sanding with a different level of grit is required.
In addition to grinding metals, wood and plastic on such homemade products, it is quite successfully possible to sharpen locksmith / carpentry tools, as well as to improve drills, turning tools.
Certain types of homemade grinding machines have a fairly simple design and can be assembled as needed.
The rest are very similar to industrial designs and are an unusual example of how home engineering is beautiful.
Old electric motors from household appliances, as well as power tools, are most often used as drives in such devices. Very often with ordinary thin sections. the drive part is made on the basis of a grinder or an electric drill. We propose to consider how to make a belt sander from a drill with your own hands.
In fact, there are only two main assemblies for a belt grinding machine - these are with vertical placement of the working part of the abrasive belt, as well as with horizontal. For those who make grinding machines, the first option is popular, because the device is suitable for many types of processing processes, and even more convenient for sharpening tools. In addition, dust is blown down in the process. In the role of material for creating the bed, rollers and main parts, most craftsmen often use not metal, but wood or even plywood.
The wood version has many advantages:
- All components and parts can be made in the carpentry shop.
- Adjusting wood parts is much easier.
- The timber structure is lighter.
- The unit is vibration-resistant and can be easily disassembled if needed.
In order to independently engage in the manufacture of a reliable, efficient and safe grinding machine, you should have at least minimal engineering knowledge and skills in processing construction materials. For this reason, further we will consider only very important points of creating and assembling the machine, and its schematic layout is shown in the picture below.
Electric motor selection
As a drive for a home-made grinder, or rather a machine, electric motors from drum washing machines that are out of order are usually used, as well as hand-held electric tools. If we talk about the former, then their power is usually about 0.3 kW with a rotation speed of about 3000 revolutions per minute.
They are convenient for installation work, as they are equipped with special mounting lugs on the body with holes, and also a thread on the shaft for the pulley attachment. Electric tools (as a rule, we are talking about grinders and drills) are attached to brackets or removable clamps.
Their motors will operate at higher frequencies, and for this reason, in grinding machines, the best option would be to use models where it is possible to adjust this parameter.
In a grinder from a drill, the speed of the electric drive is one of the most important characteristics of a home-made machine, then the diameter of the drive pulley, which transmits the rotation of the grinding belt, will be calculated from it. All types of abrasive belts are designed for application at a specific linear speed, and its values are measured in m / s, and the working speed will be equal to the peripheral speed of the drive pulley.
For this reason, in the presence of an electric motor with known data, the creation of a grinding machine project must necessarily begin with the fact that you decide on the diameter.
Please note, that according to the length of the sanding belt and the diameter of the pulleys, as well as rollers, you can calculate their center-to-center distances, and also determine the overall size of the future grinding machine.
Frame (bed) and its structure
Now a little about the frame. Also called the grinding machine bed, it is the supporting structure on which the electric drive, rollers and pulleys are mounted. Its rigidity and precise manufacturing will affect the normal movement of the abrasive belt, as well as the stability of the device. The contours of the frame, as a rule, repeat the scheme of the rollers (kinematic names), which are located at its extreme points.
After that, its design will be considered on the example of a homemade device made of plywood and wood, in which an electric drill is used as a drive.
You can see the process of creating such a grinding machine in detail in the video, and at the end you will find sketches of all parts in real dimensions.
The machine bed is a box-type structure with a drive pulley and a pair of rollers located inside it. It is made of a curly sidewall of a broken shape in the shape of the letter "C", which is installed on a large base. Plywood with a large thickness is used as a material for each part of such a grinding machine.
A work table with a slot for an abrasive belt is attached to the lower projection of the bed.
The drive pulley is installed on the vertical part of the bed, and the guide roller is at the end of the lower one; the regulating and tensioning element is located at the top. A similar curly sidewall is attached to the hinges in the form of a door, and also fully covers the entire space with rollers and a pulley.
The huge advantage of such a grinding belt device is that all its parts are made using the simplest tool in the carpentry shop, and during the assembly process, a minimum number of types of fasteners and metal components are used. As you can see, the master will spend no more than 2 days to make it.
Please note that if you look at everything from a security point of view, the decision to completely cover the rollers and tapes is optimal.
And the tangible disadvantages of such a machine can be attributed only to a small amplitude of the belt tension.
Homemade and factory belt sanders usually use 2 to 4 rollers of different sizes. One of them will always be a pulley on the drive axle and continuously transmits movement to the sanding belt. Another one will act as a tensioner (sometimes this function is combined with axial regulation).
The rest are guides and can also be adjusted.
One of the most popular is the design of grinding machines, which have three rollers. In this case, each will perform one of the functions. In a similar configuration, with the vertical placement of the working part of the abrasive belt for grinding, a tension roller will be located at the top, and a guide type at the bottom.
A do-it-yourself belt sander from a drill also needs to be set up. To do this, after installing the rollers and pulley, it is necessary to make adjustments on the machine frame.
During operation, the sanding belt will move at a speed of 10-30 m / s, and each deviation in the geometry of the relative placement of the rollers and pulley can cause breakage and descent.
For this reason, their axes should be aligned exactly parallel to the horizontal, and the planes of rotation along which the tape will move, clearly coincide vertically. The possibility of such adjustments must be foreseen in advance during the development of the design of the belt grinding machine.
Despite all the simplicity of the design, such a machine will always cope with all the tasks assigned to it, and if you have the budget does not include funds to buy a factory machine, then a homemade device will be an excellent assistant for you. To begin with, you should cut out 6 thick round parts and four thinner round pieces with a crown.
Although in this case all calculations are based on what the thickness of the sandpaper is (which can also be done along the way), you can remake such a machine and adapt it to your needs.In addition to the round parts, you will need a hairpin on which you will string the circles. Next, you need to glue the round parts together and glue to the metal hairpin. As a result, new details will be obtained.
Next, take a couple of small pieces of plywood and make a small hole in one for the screws, and in the second drill a hole for the nut with a feather.
It remains to drip some epoxy resin and hammer the nut with a hammer. Next, coat the edge of the second part with glue, and connect both parts to each other, fix on the screws. You should also make a couple more holes on a part that you will not drill into.
Four such connections should be made. After that, we make a belt for sanding, and for this we need to cut off the usual sandpaper as in the photo, apply glue to the inside and fasten it to the cloth.
Then start assembling the machine. Make holes on the plywood, fix the first part with bolts and put one of the "drums" on it.
Then support the drum with the second part and fix it on the bolts. In such a drum, the hairpin on the inside should be longer - this is where you connect the drill. On the other hand, we do the same, but here we will use parts with oblong holes.
Next, we fix the rectangle with the circle cut out in it, insert the device into the seat and connect the hairpin with the drill chucks. It remains to fix the pin in the chuck and that's it, the device is ready!
The simplest device among those that can be made with your own hands and which are created by home craftsmen is precisely a disc grinder, which is driven by an electric drill (or rather, it is a drive).
The main advantage of such structures is their ability to quickly assemble and disassemble, as well as manufacture the device from scratch. But there are other types of structures, more complex ones - with a movable work table or even a movable support in which the drill is fixed. Thick wood or plywood is usually used as a material for creating a homemade disc on a grinding machine, and assembly is performed using an adhesive composition and screws.
Please note, that since different materials are sanded at different speeds, it is worth using drills in such devices where it is possible to adjust the speed of rotation or standard drills with built-in dimmers.
Assembling the frame
As a rule, the frame (that is, the bed) on which the electric drill is installed is a piece of rectangular board forms with a device for fastening. As a device for fixing, either a metal bracket is used, which presses the body of an electric drill, or a wooden clamp with two semicircular recesses that hold the device by the neck.
For additional fastening and placement of the drill in height, short bars and plywood plates are used. Most often, a work table for such a do-it-yourself grinding machine is a simple structure made of rectangular pieces of plywood, including 3 pieces (or chipboard with a slot for a disk), but some amateur craftsmen make inclined and movable tables.
As a grinding device, disc nozzles with a cylindrical shank are usually used. Most make a similar tool on their own with discs of the required size from plastic or plywood. Others use factory disc nozzles or with soft pads if fine grinding or even polishing is required; if roughing or coarse grinding is required, as well as sharpening and dressing of the tool, then disk nozzles and soft pads are not used.
Please note, that on the factory attachments, the sandpaper is fixed by means of a standard Velcro, and on homemade ones it is attached using an adhesive composition.
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