Plaster is an integral part of almost any repair, it performs different functions, and therefore it is used quite often. Sometimes it is simply impossible to do without it - this applies to certain stages of both internal and external work. And today we will tell you how to make a plaster solution yourself.
How to make plaster mortar
Before we learn how to prepare plaster ourselves, we should get to know this type of finishing material better. Yes, plaster is a solution widely used in construction and renovation work.
It consists of water, sand and a mixture of any binders - fillers (more about the composition will go on).
What is plaster
External wall plaster
Plaster performs the following important functions:
Machine plastering of walls
It is interesting that plaster, or rather, its analogue as a finishing material was used many centuries ago in the Roman Empire. It was there that cement, concrete were invented, and soon plaster appeared, which quickly gained recognition from the nobility.
Although the walls were plastered in those days even by far from well-to-do townspeople.
Decorative plaster also appeared in the days of Ancient Rome. After the sculptural work, the Romans had a large amount of marble dust, which they added to ordinary plaster and received material for decorative finishing.
Facade decorative plaster
Important! In our time, plaster has become more advanced, received additional qualities, improved its properties. Now on the market you can buy a variety of materials for finishing, differing in structure, purpose, composition, etc.
Plaster is now distinguished by a huge variety, which allows you to choose the material that is ideal for a particular case. For the convenience of selection, experts have created a specific classification of this material.
Plaster can be polymer and mineral. The first type is made using acrylic and silicone, is practical, durable, and durable.But mineral plaster is an environmentally friendly material that not only does not harm human health, but also normalizes the microclimate in the house (when it comes to interior decoration) due to the fact that it contains natural fillers - chalk, lime or cement.
Application of mineral plaster
Examples of mineral coatings with quartz grain
Also, all types of plasters can be divided into several types according to the purpose of their use and purpose - from this point of view, they are:
Note! Decorative plaster, in turn, can have a lot of subspecies. For example, there are stone, colored, Venetian plaster, as well as silk, sgraffito, terrazite.
All of them differ from each other in the purpose of use, the end result, the method of application.
Decorative facade mosaic plaster
Imitation decorative plaster stone
The combination of decorative plaster and stone on a country house
Table. Types of plaster composition.
| Consists of cement, coarse sand, slaked lime (the last two components are mixed in a ratio of 4: 1). You can work quickly with such a material, it is applied well.
At the same time, the finish is environmentally friendly. The disadvantage is low strength.
| The result of finishing the walls like this material - a perfectly flat white surface. Such plaster is used only for indoor work. The cost of the material is quite high, besides, it is afraid of moisture and has low strength.
Unfortunately, often asbestos or other chemical additives can be added to gypsum plaster, which make the plastered surface as white as possible, which allows you to save on the purchase of a finishing putty, but it negatively affects your health.
| Such plaster can be used both outdoors and indoors. This is one of the cheapest types of finishing material, but at the same time it is highly durable (the operating period is more than one decade), but it is rather difficult to apply. But such a plaster allows you to close up serious flaws.Composition - sand, cement (ratio 4: 1), to which PVA glue or lime is mixed.
| This type of putty is used for leveling wood surfaces, as well as for finishing stoves, fireplaces, chimneys and other stone products.
In the photo, cement mortar for plaster
Note! There is also magnesia plaster, intended exclusively for interior work. It is a non-flammable, non-dusting composition. Differs in high strength and is suitable for preparing walls for painting, laying tiles, pasting walls with wallpaper.
There are also combined compositions.
One composition can contain several different components that give the solution a viscosity - it can be, for example, lime and cement, as well as gypsum and lime, other variations and combinations.
Do-it-yourself exterior plaster at home
Plaster the mortar, like any other mortar, if it is ready for use, should have a homogeneous state without lumps, optimal fat content, adhere well when applied to the work surface, and also not shrink too much when drying, that is, not be covered with cracks.
Plaster solutions are:
The first mortars have a liquid consistency, as too few binders have been added. But the latter, on the contrary, contain an excess of such components, which is why, during the drying process, such plaster becomes covered with cracks and all the work goes down the drain.
The first type of solution, on the contrary, has a small amount of astringent components, but in excess - a filler substance. Because of this, the layer of plaster applied to the wall will have a low strength.
Mortar for plaster
The best option is a mortar of medium fat content. It is in it that the content of the components that make up the composition is optimally balanced.
Note! Depending on the purposes for which the plaster solution is used, mixtures are prepared that differ in fat content.
Determining the fat content of the mixture before it is applied to the wall is quite simple - you just need to mix the solution and pay attention to its "behavior". If the mixture adheres excessively to the paddle that was being interfered with, the mixture is too greasy. If she does not stick at all, then she will be considered skinny. In the first case, a filler is added to correct the situation, in the second - an astringent.
Preparation of plaster mortar
In order to prepare the working plaster solution as needed, it is important to know the recipes that are appropriate in each case.
The main ones are presented in the table.
Table. Recipes for the preparation of plaster solutions.
|Cement|| To prepare such a composition, cement and river washed, good quality sand are combined in a ratio of 1: 2.5-1: 3 for spraying, 1: 3-1: 4 for applying a primer, and in a ratio of 1: 2 - for the finishing layer.
The mixed components with constant stirring are diluted with plain water. You need to use the ready-made solution within an hour, so you should not dilute a lot of plaster at once. Exceeding this time limit entails a loss of material quality.
|Lime|| To create a mixture, use sand as a filler and lime dough, as well as water. For spraying, combine 1 part of lime with 2.
5-4 parts of sand, to create a primer layer - with 2-3 parts of sand, and for a finishing mixture - with 1-2 parts of filler. Usually such plaster resembles a viscous white dough. It solidifies rather slowly, so you can cook it in large quantities right away. But if you add a little gypsum to the mixture (5: 1), then the solution will become stronger, but it will harden in just a few minutes. In this way, lime-gypsum plaster is obtained.
To make the mixture stronger, you can add a little cement to the finished one (about 1/10 of the resulting volume).
|Clay|| This plaster is prepared according to a special recipe and a specific technology. First of all, the binder component, that is, the clay, is moistened with water and covered with a piece of cloth. When the clay swells, it is mixed with fine sawdust (1: 3) and clean water, pouring the latter until the mixture reaches a certain condition. The clay-based composition is not particularly durable, but its quality can be improved by adding a little cement (for 10 liters of mortar - 1 liter of cement).
It turns out a cement-clay mortar. You can also create a gypsum solution, but clay dough is used instead of clay. The basic rule for preparing a clay-based mixture is to add so much filler to it so that its amount is 3-5 times higher than the volume of the binder.
|Cement and lime|| By mixing 0.5 parts of lime dough and 2 parts of coarse sand with 1 part of Portland cement, you get just such a solution for plaster walls.
|Lime and clay|| In this case, mix 1: 1 lime and clay dough, adding to them 5 parts of sand. You can also mix 1 part clay, 3-5 parts sand and 0.2 parts lime.
|Cement and clay|| This mortar is prepared in the same way regardless of the purpose of use. Cement, clay and sand are mixed in a ratio of 1: 4: 6.
|Lime and gypsum|| For 1 part of lime for spraying use 0.6-1 part of clay, 2-3 - sand. For the primer layer - 2 parts of sand and 1.5 parts of gypsum, sand is not used for the finishing layer, but 1-1.5 parts of gypsum are added.
Sifting sand to prepare plaster
There are such plasters that, in addition to their basic functions, perform other tasks: increase heat and sound insulation, protect against harmful radiation, give the base fireproof properties, and so on. Waterproofing plaster, which is used for finishing surfaces exposed to increased moisture exposure, also belongs to special ones.
Often builders do not want to bother with the preparation of homemade mortars for plastering walls. It is much easier for them to buy a ready-made mixture based on Portland cement, which is called dry construction and has been actively sold on the markets for many years. The composition of this tool includes various additives that make the finished plaster plastic, durable, more adhesive relative to the working surface.
Dry mixes for external plaster
Decorative mineral plaster for outdoor use
Advantages of dry building mixes:
The recipes for these mixtures are developed in special laboratories, due to which the proportions of the components included in them are verified very precisely. Due to this, the compositions in a diluted state are as homogeneous as possible in consistency. Having diluted such a plaster, you can immediately start working.
At home, you can prepare yourself any type of mix for plaster.
Let's make the simplest one on a cement basis.
Step 1. First of all, we prepare all the necessary tools and components: sifted river sand, cement, water, detergent, containers in which we will mix the mixture, as well as the mixer with which we will produce mixing.
Preparing everything you need
Attention! Detergent is used to prevent the mixture from shrinking strongly during drying.
Add a couple of lids of detergent to the bucket of water. Stir with a mixer.
The water is mixed with the detergent
Step 3. Pour the prepared liquid evenly into the sand laid in a wooden stretcher.
The finished liquid is poured into the sand
Again, using a construction mixer, mix the sand and poured into it a soapy mixture.The solution should reach a mushy state.
The components are mixed
Attention! We add water gradually - you do not need to pour out the whole bucket at once, so as not to make the mixture too liquid.
Step 5. Spread the cement evenly over the surface of the mixture in a stretcher.
Cement is added
Step 6. Stir the workpiece with a mixer and add some water again. Mix the mixture with a mixer again. Using a spatula, remove the dried pieces of mortar from the walls of the stretcher and knead them in the "common pot".
Re-mixing the components
The plaster solution is ready, it can be used for finishing.
Tip! All materials that will be used for the preparation of plaster, it is advisable to sift through a sieve. This procedure will achieve a more uniform consistency.
To the solution for wall decoration turned out to be of the best quality, certain rules must be followed.
Attachment mixer for the drill
Plastered facade of a house in a cottage village
The main thing is to adhere to the basic rules, and then the plaster will turn out to be of the highest quality and will serve applied for many years.
Posted By: Work Style |05, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |06, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |05, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |06, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |05, Nov 2020