The article contains a complete description of the schemes and principles of operation septic tanks. The most popular types of treatment plants for country houses and summer cottages are given. There is information about ready-made structures, as well as the possibility of installing a septic tank yourself with your own hands from scrap materials.
Read on =. .
A septic tank (sump) is an element of a local treatment plant on a private land plot. It is intended for collection, step-by-step purification and sedimentation of organic and mineral particles of waste water from suburban real estate. There are a lot of varieties of septic tanks today.
They consist of:
The general principle of operation of all types of septic tanks is based on the overflow of sewage through connected vessels from one chamber to another. At the same time, the concentration of solid particles and impurities decreases, and the liquid fractions become lighter.
The general scheme of septic tank operation primarily depends on the method of filtration of liquid sewage waste. There are two cleaning methods:
Waste water from the central drainage pipe flows into the first tank. It should be the largest chamber in terms of size. In this container, the effluent settles for two days and decomposes into a solid phase with large particles, a gas fraction and waste water with small particles. They are also called clarified waters.
Solid sediment falls to the bottom of the first tank, and the remaining liquid suspension flows into the second chamber for active organic decomposition by anaerobic microorganisms, which are added to the first and second tanks.
These organisms can work without oxygen. In the process of their life, sewage is fermented and divided into fractions. And the heat and methane released at the same time are removed through the ventilation holes.
After that, the clarified wastewater is removed from the septic tank and enters the filtration fields for additional treatment through a natural filter.It consists of layers of soil, sand and gravel.
And the subsequent decomposition process is already aerobic bacteria. For this, oxygen is supplied through the ventilation pipes, which is necessary for the work of microorganisms. Clarified effluents after such cleaning stages do not pose a threat to the environment and are discharged into the soil.
The quality of filtration is of great importance for the operation of anaerobic septic tanks with mechanical treatment. These indicators include:
This type septic tanks are also called bioseptics. Water purification in this design is carried out due to the vital activity of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. By design, it is a single sealed multi-chamber unit, divided into several compartments and reinforced with stiffeners. Depending on the quality of the treated effluent, the number of sections in the septic tank may be different. The more chambers, the higher the quality of clarified water filtration.
After sewage treatment through a bioseptic tank, the purified water does not need filtration through the soil layer and can be used for watering plants and drained into a natural reservoir. If we describe the scheme of work of a bioseptic, then it looks like this:
The first chamber is used as a settling tank. Wastewater flows there directly from the sewer. Due to the presence of anaerobic bacteria in the chamber, the mass undergoes stratification into a solid fraction, which settles to the bottom of the chamber. And a light fraction, in the form of a small sediment of small particles and a film on the surface.
Further, the resulting clarified liquid flows into the second tank. At this stage, organic and mineral waste is broken down due to the vital activity of aerobic bacteria. After this stage, for deep cleaning and its disinfection, the filtered liquid from the second chamber enters the third tank for treatment with chemical components or is re-exposed to aerobic microorganisms. Aerobic bacteria function only in the presence of oxygen. Therefore, air is supplied to the chambers by special devices.
These can be compressors or aerators.
Because of this, bioseptics are considered volatile devices. Requires additional electricity bills. However, with constant and correct use of such a cleaning system, the investment pays off.
Septic Tank is a complex filtration system with soil purification devices (infiltrate).
The design is a one-piece body of a block-modular structure, reinforced with thick stiffeners. They are necessary so that the structure does not sag under soil pressure and does not lose its tightness under the action of water pressure from the inside.Due to its design, the septic tank can be installed on different soils.
The mechanism of sewage water treatment in this type of septic tank is also based on the process of settling and decomposition by microorganisms. A distinctive feature is the applied clarified water post-treatment system.
This device uses a nitrification process that is carried out in an infiltrator. The compounds that enter it are oxidized and decomposed, and the natural filtration layer further purifies the water to a suitable quality.
Septic Topas - a device for deep biological wastewater treatment. It consists of 4 chambers and has a vertically pyramidal structure. In each compartment, due to aerobic bacteria, wastewater is split into fractions.
The more clarified liquid between the chamber does not flow spontaneously, but is pumped by pipe pumps. In the final compartment, purified water is pumped out of the septic tank using a drain pump.
Septic Tank Unilos Astra
Purification device Astra by the principle of operation and design is similar to the septic tank "Topas". This is a type of off-the-shelf filtration unit sold in stores. It is intended mainly for equipping local sewerage systems for country cottages with a small number of residents.
These data are indicated for hints right in the name of the septic tank, for example, Astra 8, Astra5, etc.
In shape, the finished septic tank is a four-section body, the walls of which are made of polypropylene with a thickness of 2 cm. To strengthen the strength, the frame is equipped with stiffening ribs. The design is mainly rectangular, with a ventilation pipe installed on the cover to supply the system with oxygen. Insulation material is mandatory.
In addition to the tanks for filtration and sedimentation, the installation kit includes pumps, pipes and pipes, grease and natural inclusions traps, filters, a circulator and a recirculator.
If the unit is operating on a permanent basis, after 2-3 weeks from the start of its operation, the system is independently inoculated with the necessary bacteria for the process of decomposition and purification of wastewater. In exceptional cases, on request, you can purchase ready-made cultures of aerobic bacteria for quick start-up of the system. These microorganisms are sold in the store marked "start". They are diluted in water and washed down the drain.
Septic Triton purifies waste water due to mechanical and biological filtration, using an additional system of additional purification of clarified water through a natural layer from the ground. The advantage of this septic tank is its small size and simplicity of design. Triton-Mini is ideal for small suburban real estate or for equipping local baths sewerage systems.
Septic Ecopan is a six-stage cylindrical wastewater treatment plant with a thick bottom. Each container is provided with transverse baffles to increase rigidity.
The design is suitable for clay soils, with a high level of groundwater flow, as well as in the case of deep laying of the supply pipeline.
The principle of operation of this septic tank is also based on the mechanism of sedimentation and decomposition by microorganisms. In the first chamber, the drains are settled. Solid fractions settle, liquid fractions pass into the second compartment. Anaerobic bacteria in the second chamber process, purify and clarify the water.
In the third tank, the clarified liquid is exposed to the action of aerobic microorganisms. The decomposition process is accelerated under the influence of the aerator.
Further, the liquid fraction enters the second settling tank. In it, the remaining fine sludge particles settle and are pumped into the first chamber for re-cleaning. And the settled liquid goes into the bioreactor.
Dolomite is used as a cleaning material. After passing the liquid through the mineral, the effluent is fed to the third settling tank. The remaining sludge is pumped by a pump into the first settling tank for additional treatment. After passing through all these stages, filtered water is removed into the ground for disposal. It can also be redirected to an additional container for technical use.
With processes, occurring in a septic tank, you have already read. Now let's see how you can make a septic tank yourself from scrap materials.
There are many options. They differ only in the material for the manufacture of tanks used for filtration. They must be durable materials that can withstand the effects of various chemical reactions.
Such materials include concrete, brick, finished products made of plastic or fiberglass, less often products made of metal and reinforced concrete structures. Even automatic tires can be used to make a homemade septic tank.
Let's take an example of installing a septic tank with our own hands. The settling chambers and the filtration well are constructed of concrete rings.
Before installing such an installation, it is necessary to prepare a pit of the required size and pour concrete into the place of the proposed bottom of the structure.
After the installation site is prepared, the concrete rings are installed. Each ring with each other, as well as the joints of the bottom ring, must be tightly sealed.
For the natural transfer of liquids from the sump to the filter chambers, holes are drilled or sewer pipes are built in. The bottom of the unit is covered with pebbles or gravel. The cleaning structure is closed with a concrete slab with an inspection hatch.
To ventilate the system, a ventilation duct must be installed.
The disadvantage of installing such a structure is the cost of attracting large equipment for moving concrete materials.
Remember! When installing a treatment plant with your own hands, it is very important to create the correct flow rate of liquid sewage water from one reservoir to another. The rapid movement of liquid will impede the settling process of solid sediments. For fast, efficient and long-term operation of the system, it is important to ensure that inorganic compounds with a long decay period, as well as foreign objects such as plastic, polyethylene, etc.
, do not enter the septic tank.
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