The most common in private construction is the strip foundation. The technology for erecting a strip foundation is quite simple and allows you to do it yourself without any complications. However, the significant disadvantages of this type are the high consumption of materials and, as a result, the high price.
This is a fairly simple and solid foundation with good bearing capacity. It is suitable for almost any soil.
By its construction, this type of foundation is nothing more than a reinforced concrete monolithic strip installed under all external and internal walls of the future houses.
A monolithic strip foundation is also suitable for heavy brick buildings or for houses with massive ceilings. It also works well when a basement or semi-basement room is planned in the house (for example, a cellar or even a garage in the basement).
Of course, a lot depends on the type of your house, how heavy it is, what kind of soil to build on, but do not forget about the quality of concrete ..
. It comes in different brands. For not heavy houses made of frame or wood concrete 200 will suit you, if the house is heavy or multi-storey 250 or 300, it also guarantees frost resistance and protection from heaving soils. And if your house is as heavy as a castle, then put it on super-strong concrete m350.
Main characteristics and the field of application of the strip foundation differ depending on the degree of its deepening, construction technology and the materials used.
For light structures of residential buildings, use a shallow strip foundation (depth up to 70 cm). More massive buildings made of stone or brick, as well as the intention to arrange a full-fledged basement, will not allow you to save money and will require a buried foundation (the depth is calculated by the formula: depth of soil freezing + 30 cm).
The buried foundation, of course, is more durable and is less subject to deformation due to heaving of the soil. However, it requires a lot of materials and laborious construction work.
The device of a strip foundation of any type is best carried out in the warm season, since there is a need to dig a hollow, and it is quite problematic to work with frozen soil.
Important! On deeply freezing soils and soils with strong frost heaving, this type of foundation is not recommended.
Foundations erected directly on the construction site are called monolithic. And those that are assembled from standard reinforced concrete blocks of industrial production are prefabricated.The monolithic device can be done by hand. The national teams require the involvement of special equipment.
The service life of a monolithic foundation will be up to 150 years, but only if the calculation was made correctly and high-quality materials were used during construction in the correct proportion. Also, this type of foundation is more durable.
Prefabricated strip foundations (brick bands or blocks) are also used in both industrial and private construction. They will last several times less and are much inferior in strength to monolithic ones, since they still consist of separate elements. In addition, the use of special equipment will be required to lay massive factory blocks under the foundation.
As a result, such a foundation will be more expensive than a similar monolithic one. However, the use of prefabricated blocks helps to shorten the construction time of the foundation.
It is built using cement mortar and rubble stone. Sufficiently solid foundation, best suited for sandy or rocky soils.
However, due to the material used and design features, it is completely unsuitable for areas with clay soils.
The most popular material. Built using. It is built using sand and crushed stone, cement mortar and metal mesh and reinforcement.
A solid and solid foundation with a high bearing capacity.
Due to the high hygroscopicity of the material used - brick - it needs good waterproofing. Not suitable for soils with high groundwater and deep burial.
Erected from ready-made reinforced concrete slabs or blocks. Suitable for any soil.
Most often, when building a house with their own hands, developers choose the option of a monolithic shallow strip foundation made of reinforced concrete. Consider the stages of the construction of this foundation.
Includes, first of all, the clearing of the site from debris and the delivery of the necessary building materials. Further, the marking of the future foundation is applied, which requires clear control and verification. The corners of the house and each room are strictly 90 degrees.
The prepared site should be leveled, and its dimensions should extend by 2.5 meters beyond the outer edge of the house.
You can dig a trench manually or order an excavator. Even if the trench was dug with the help of special equipment, you cannot do without manual labor. After all, the bottom of the trench made by an excavator needs to be leveled, and in places - cleaned up.
At the bottom of the trench, a sand or gravel cushion is laid, which is carefully compacted.
A layer of waterproofing is placed on top of the sand or a cement mixture is poured (this will exclude moisture from the concrete to the ground).
Stage 3. Formwork and reinforcement
The formwork can be made by hand from planks planed on at least one side (with straight edges set inward).
The formwork boards must be well soaked and well supported inside the trench with spacers. The position of the formwork walls is strictly vertical.
The elevation above the ground (the future basement of the house) is at least 30 cm. In addition, at this stage, openings for communications must be provided inside the formwork.
It is also quite acceptable option when instead of a plank one uses factory collapsible metal formwork.
A reinforcement cage is placed inside the formwork to the full height, which will ensure the strength of the monolith.
Concrete is poured into the formwork in layers and compacted using a concrete vibrator or manually. The strength and reliability of a monolithic foundation directly depends on the quality of concrete.
Stage 5. Monolith waterproofing and backfilling.
You can start waterproofing for 7-10 days after pouring the foundation.
At this stage, the formwork is dismantled and a waterproofing material takes its place. It can be roofing material or ordinary clay. Sometimes, if a basement is planned, a heater is placed under the waterproofing layer.
The remaining gutters are filled with sand and compacted.
After a full set of concrete strength, the construction of the house can be continued.
Posted By: Work Style |11, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |08, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |12, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |11, Nov 2020