Ventilation of the attic in a private house is carried out by means of special dormer windows, through the exhaust holes in the ridge of the roof and through the inlets under the cornice. [contents ]
These devices are designed to prevent the accumulation of condensate from the steam contained in the air of bathrooms, kitchens, etc.
Attic construction is used in different ways, for example, for economic purposes, by placing a convenient workshop there.
But the overlap of the attic in this case must be strengthened to avoid sagging. The room can be lit both artificially and naturally. This will require special attic windows and electricity supply. There can also be a clothes dryer in the attic. It will require additional ventilation devices.
Often the attic is used by the homeowner as a large pantry for storing tools, materials, and often unnecessary things. Recently, this part of the house has been very successfully used as an additional full-fledged living space.
Before you start to plan the arrangement of the attic, you should think and decide what exactly will be there: just an additional area, or autonomous housing.
In the latter case, it will be necessary to assess the degree of suitability of this room, which depends not only on its size, but also on the possibility of equipping a toilet, kitchen, and bathroom there. In the first case, the features of the configuration of the room and its architectural features are important.
The attic can be used as a complete, separate room - living room, nursery or study. It is advisable that a professional be engaged in the drawings, who will be able to competently beat the spaces, including all the necessary communications in it. Planning on your own can be difficult, since its area is rather limited, and the shape can be very specific.
Despite its name, such a roof arrangement significantly reduces possible heat loss from the building itself. The temperature of the attic space with this design should be no more than four degrees above the ambient t.
The room of such an attic is unheated, that is, really cold. Air from ventilation ducts in such structures enters the atmosphere immediately.
To reduce the number of intersections of the roll insulation and the roof, the channels within the sections are combined by means of special ventilation ducts. The device of such natural ventilation helps to maintain the required humidity and temperature in the attic room.This avoids the formation of condensation as well as frost at the bottom of the roofing panels.
The following is important. Violation of humidity and temperature conditions can cause humidification of both the insulating material and the building structures themselves. The consequences of these processes are difficult to predict: it can be anything, starting with the loss of the insulation of its performance, and ending with the destruction of the entire structure.
What are the advantages of a cold attic?
Defects are easily detected and repaired.
. The number of intersections of the waterproofing roll carpet with superstructures protruding above the roof level is minimized. This helps to improve the quality of waterproofing at home.
Special air vents are made especially for ventilation. Their total S (area) should occupy from 1/300 to 1/500 of the area of the entire overlap.
In other words, for every thousand meters of floor space, at least two square meters of airflow will be required. The most rational is their distribution under the roof overhang evenly, along the length of the ridge and the perimeter of the building. This arrangement provides intensive and high-quality air exchange over the entire attic surface.
The entire volume of the room to be ventilated is, as it were, divided into two pressure zones by the air flow - negative (minimum) and positive (maximum). The inlet openings are located mainly in the second zone, and the exhaust in the first. This fact guarantees proper ventilation of the room.
To prevent entry of birds, the vents are covered with nets or gratings. Dormers also, to some extent, contribute to the ventilation process.
They are usually fitted with louvers and must be open around the clock.
If the roof is pitched, there is no under-roof waterproofing, and the covering is piece or sheet material, it is not necessary to equip special ventilation holes. The existing gaps between the elements of the roof will be quite enough.
A roof with such a cold attic can be used in buildings of any number of storeys. Thermal insulation is done along the floor itself.
The required size of the insulation layer is determined according to the climatic features of the area where the building is located. For most regions of Russia, this is at least 20 centimeters.The hoods of sewer pipes and ventilation shafts in the cold room of the attic must also be carefully insulated.
It is not recommended to equip a living space in a house iron roof. No state-of-the-art thermal insulation can protect you from the summer heat under the hot metal.
The best option for roofing when arranging an attic is tiles or slate. An attic is a specific living space under a pitched roof, in an attic space.
Only after the frame of the potential attic has been fully assembled, including vertical posts, rafters, etc., can the attic thermal insulation procedure be started. Then wall and ceiling cladding is carried out.
You can use any of the suitable materials - OSB or chipboard, lining, plasterboard, plywood and more. Before upholstering with sheet material, the frame must be reinforced with a batten . For this, the sheathing joints must be reinforced with boards.
Narrow, preferably grooved, lining strips are perfect as decorative interior cladding.
Thanks to this upholstery and construction , the attic will turn into a cozy and stylish part of the home.
If the surface of the lining is carefully sanded, coated with linseed oil and coated with oil varnish, it will not need painting. If desired, the tree can be shaded with stain, or even potassium permanganate, contrastingly highlighting the walls against the ceiling.
The entrance to the attic can be made from the room or directly from the street.
In the first case, you will need a hatch with a ladder.
The simplest attic staircase in design is made of a pair of 5 x 30 cm planks, which will serve as a base, and 4 x 25 cm steps for steps.
Deep (20 cm) grooves are cut on the racks ... The latter are fixed with nails and casein or epoxy glue. The staircase can be spiral, especially this option is suitable for a home on two levels.
You can make such a compact ladder from different materials, including wood and metal.
Those who wish to acquire additional space for the roof should be aware that this event will significantly increase the load on the attic floor. The weight of a gas stove or an overall bath with water may well cause it to sag.
Therefore, the structure of the attic floor needs reliable reinforcement. What materials are preferable for this?
Of course, durable, hygienic, reliable.
Of modern materials, such qualities are possessed by tiles, plasterboard panels, special porous concrete and wood.
Due to its amazing ability to accumulate and give off excess moisture, wood is considered a kind of microclimate regulator in a home. Strong, thick boards are suitable for making indoor walls. Gypsum-fiber panels and drywall can be excellent materials for upholstering walls and roofs from the inside. Gypsum, which is part of their composition, has qualities similar to those of wood.
In addition, products made from it serve as a wonderful base for painting.
Of special porous concrete can interior walls are laid out, it can be used for cladding a bathroom or for an additional floor level.
It is produced as individual compact units. Tiles made of this material are used for finishing kitchens and bathrooms, they can be used to cover the floor in the house. When working with tiles, you should pay attention to the fact that voids do not form between it and the base being trimmed.
Wooden joists are not suitable as a base for this tile. Such tiles have the following working qualities - they are easy to clean, very aesthetic and hygienic.
Solid and a solid reinforced concrete floor does not need preparatory work. If it is made of wood, then it needs sanitation. If the house is not new, then you will have to replace the inter-girder filling located on the false ceiling.
It is required in order to provide maximum sound insulation for the floor. When inspecting the backfill, you should also determine the condition of the beams. Beam heads, which are fixed by masonry, need special attention.
If they are damaged by mold or insects, then the reliability of the entire structure of the floor may be at risk. Unsuitable beams will have to be replaced.
Cement floors are suitable for high-strength attic floors, especially for rooms with high humidity. They will not only not allow water to reach the supporting structures (for example, in the bathroom), but will also play the role of a substrate for the final cladding with decorative materials.
When heating, sewerage and water pipes are drawn into the attic during construction work, the main task can be considered solved. It remains to find out whether the input is located where it is required by the project, and take care of the device for heating the water. Heating of the attic space can be done in two ways: either by connecting to the centralized system of the whole house, or by an autonomous heating device.
Automatic electric heaters can be safely called one of the most important modern achievements.
By means of a computer, they receive a task with a certain set of parameters: work power, t of heated water, its volume. This synchronization provides highly efficient operation with significant energy savings.To avoid unnecessary costs, it is better to plan planning in such a way that the distances for wiring communications are minimal. Therefore, it would be advisable to locate a bathroom and, for example, a kitchen next door: using one electric heater will provide both points with the required amount of heated water, with a minimum of costs.
If it is impossible to connect the attic to the heating of the whole house, you will need to install an autonomous device. According to existing standards, the required heating rate is calculated. The preferred type of energy is selected depending on the results obtained. The most convenient and efficient fuel is gas, if possible. A gas heating device has many advantages: convenient dimensions, ease of installation, affordable service.
According to the requirements of the safety rules, a thorough fire-retardant treatment of all structures of the attic and attic premises must be carried out.
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