This article will focus on how to equip the electrical wiring in the house with your own hands, as well as schemes and wiring. Some time ago, the load on the power grids of cities and villages was insignificant, but in the modern world the load on the power grids has become much higher.
Nowadays, people use such high-power household appliances as multicooker, washing machine, dishwasher and other similar appliances.
The residents living in apartments have a certain supply, in contrast to the residents of private houses. An increase in the load on the electrical wiring in the house leads to the fact that the cables do not withstand and collapse.
Therefore, in the event of a breakdown, the electrician in the house must be repaired or even replaced.
Wiring in houses used to be done according to a simple scheme, that is, one switch and an outlet were mounted in each room. In the modern world, this is not enough, because you cannot turn on a laptop, a phone charger and a lamp, for example, into one outlet.
In order to equip the wiring with your own hands, you need to study some rules, standards.
In this article you will learn how to make a wiring diagram correctly, how to properly separate it with your own hands and what requirements are imposed on it.
All building materials and builders' activities are regulated by rules and requirements , they have a name, and these are GOST and SNiP. The Electrical Installation Rules are also applied to electricians in houses and other structures. This document specifies the requirements for electrical equipment.
An electrician in the house must be connected to voltage only after being tested for a short circuit.
If you decide to do the wiring in your house or apartment yourself, then study well the requirements that apply to it.
The main thing to consider such electrical wiring details as junction boxes, switches, meters and sockets should be in the quick access area.
Do-it-yourself wiring quickly, but remember that wiring is very capricious from a safety point of view. With a certain knowledge of all the rules, you can adhere to. So the PUE switches must be mounted at a level of 0.6 to 1.
5 meters from the floor.
The cable, which must fit the switch, is placed from above. Sockets are located at a level from 0.5 to 0.8 meters from the floor, this is necessary for safety in case of flooding of the house.
From gas, electric stoves, pipes and heating radiators, the sockets should be at a distance of about 0.5 m.
Wires to sockets always fit from the bottom up, this is how they install an electrician in a house with their own hands.There should be 1 outlet in the room for every six square meters, an exception will be the kitchen, since as many sockets are installed in it as needed.
Installation of sockets in the toilet is not allowed, but in the bathroom installation of sockets is allowed (if there is an isolation through a transformer) The transformer is installed outside the bathroom.
Before you start installing the wiring, you need to draw up a plan for it, on the plan you need to mark the location of the wiring in the walls. It is important to place the wires either horizontally or vertically.
Wiring should be located away from floor beams, pipes. For example, electrical wiring from beams and cornices should be located at a distance of 5 to 10 cm. From the ceiling it is necessary to maintain a distance of 15 cm, from the floor surface from 15 to 20 cm.
Sockets from windows and doors should be at a distance of 10 centimeters. Concealed or external electrical wiring should not touch parts of structures made of metal.
If the wires run parallel to each other, then the distance between them must be at least 3 millimeters. And it is best to mark each wire in a corrugation or a separate box. This is how the installation of an electrician in a wooden house takes place with your own hands.
A special junction box is used for connection and wiring. Be sure to insulate the wire connections, and do not connect copper wires to aluminum wires.
If you are going to install electrical wiring from copper wire, then install it only from copper. Bolted connections to all devices attach ground and zero wires.
If you take into account all the rules and regulations, then all the connection diagrams can be made by hand.
First, make up a wiring project, it is best if the project is drawn up by professionals. But if you have experience and the necessary knowledge, then you can compose it yourself.
You need to know that Russian standards are very different from foreign standards, which means that foreign wiring diagrams cannot be used in our country. All the electricians in the house are planned at the initial stage, for this they draw a plan of the house and indicate on it the places where the switches, sockets, chandeliers, etc. will be.
At this stage, it is very important to create a diagram where the places will be indicated location of devices.
The next step is to indicate the locations of the wires in the house.
After all the above manipulations, carry out the wiring.
There are three types of wiring and connections :
A more economical option is considered a mixed one.
To facilitate their work, load distribution is done.For example:
This option is a simple unbundling of electricity consumers and the fewer groups, the more economically the material will be consumed.
In order to simplify the laying of wiring, its installation is carried out in floor slabs. In the diagram, such a wiring is marked with a dash with dotted lines.
Calculation of the current consumption
When performing wiring, it is necessary to take into account the current strength that will have to flow through the network, that is, this is the ratio of the total power of all consumers to the voltage. In houses and apartments, the maximum current consumption does not reach twenty-five Amperes.
All materials must be selected according to this parameter.
The cross section of the wires depends on the current strength.
If you have calculated that your current consumption is 16 Amperes, then you cannot install fuses with the same operating current value.
It is necessary to take a larger standard value than the calculated one.
For DIY wiring , you need to know which cable you need to use. After all, it is produced with a different cross-section, it is selected based on the current parameters.
At this stage, you will need to calculate the amount of materials that may be needed for the installation of electrical wiring. Such work as drawing up a project, wiring, installation is done quickly, but there is some difficulty in calculating the amount of wire required for wiring. But measurements can be made by taking a tape measure.
After measuring, add an extra four meters just in case. Before entering the building, a lighting board is installed and all wires from the house must be brought to it, as well as machines are installed in it.
The machines must have a tripping current of 16 or 20 Amperes.
The electric cooker must be connected to a separate machine. Also, do not forget to count the number of sockets and boxes, it will not be difficult to do, because everything is located in the diagram.
For electrical wiring, you may still need tips, electrical tape, various tubes, boxes, thermal insulation, cable channels and much more.
You will need the following tools to work:
When replacing old wiring, a special sensor is required to detect it. Make markings to route wires on walls. The next step after marking the location of the cable, mark the location of sockets, shields, boxes, switches.
To start with a perforator with a nozzle drills special holes for sockets, boxes, switches.
In order to lay the wires, special grooves are made in the walls with the help of a grinder or a punch.
I make such grooves with a depth of no more and no less than two centimeters. To output the wires to the shield, holes are made in the corners of the rooms.
In order for the installation of wiring with your own hands to be of high quality and reliable, you must follow all the rules and regulations in accordance with GOST, SNiPu and PUE.
Also, in order to avoid various incidents, it is necessary to use only high-quality materials. And if, after all, you are not confident in your abilities, then it is better to hire specialists to install the electrical wiring.
We hope you found this article helpful. We wish you good luck and patience!
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