In the last century, the Russian stove was a multifunctional device. This is heating rooms in the winter, at the same time it is hot and healthy food, the ability to preserve the harvest due to drying, and household amenities in the form of hot water. It cannot be argued that the Russian brick oven is an ideal device. The disadvantage of the stove as heating is uneven heating. Modern stoves are designed to warm a room to its full height.
Russian stove consists of the following parts and elements:
It needs to be polished with high quality.
The improved Russian stove is now more widespread.
It differs by heating the underfloor part, due to which heating the room becomes more comfortable.
For masonry of the furnace part, refractory bricks are used, made of chamotte clay. The rest of the structure is made of ceramic bricks.
Almost every stove has metal or cast iron parts such as doors and dampers. They can also be prepared in a specific amount.
You will need the following elements:
To bookmark certain details - arches and vaults - you need easy-collapsible templates. They are produced from wood and plywood elements and parts.
Masonry mortar, unlike usual, for oven work it is much more difficult to cook.
You can also buy a ready-made mixture in the store. But, if you decide to build a Russian stove with your own hands, then the solution can be prepared independently.
Mortars for laying furnaces are selected depending on the type of brick used:
Clay is a soft nonmetallic rock, it is possible to mold sculptures, various dishes, produce tiles, etc. To check the clay solution, a method is used in which the clay dough is rolled thin flagellum, and try to bend it.
The smaller the bend radius, the better your mortar.
The second method: roll a ball out of the same dough and carefully squeeze it between two special boards. If you squeeze the ball by one third, then the clay will begin to be covered with small cracks. But if the ball is scattered, then the solution is bad.
To build and paint a Russian stove in the country with your own hands, you will need 3.
5 m 3 mortar. For this, a certain amount of components is taken and diluted with water.
You can use an iron barrel as a container. Soak the clay in water and keep it for a couple of days. Next, add sand, and thoroughly mix the entire solution with your feet (after putting on rubber boots), until the mixture is homogeneous.
Since the width of the masonry joints is no more than 3 mm for fireclay bricks, all large stones must be removed from the mortar.
Since the Russian furnace is considered a massive structure, it needs a separate foundation. And therefore, start building the furnace in advance.
The ideal option is a slab monolithic foundation made of special reinforced concrete. This foundation is not related to the foundation of the house and is an independent structure.
Its construction is carried out according to the usual technology. Before starting the installation of the foundation, a waterproofing layer is laid - roofing material, folded in several layers.
Usually the furnace is located near the inner wall, which has a shallow foundation. For the independence of the foundations, it is necessary to leave a gap of about 5 cm between them, and fill it with sand. And the upper edge of the foundation should not reach the floor level by 14 cm.
If the stove is placed near the outer wall, on a deepened strip foundation, then it will be necessary to expand the pit and make sand and gravel backfill with careful tamping. Next, a slab foundation of the furnace is arranged with a certain gap from the base of the house, the so-called retreat. Sand is poured into it, and its end walls are formed with brickwork.
If you decide to install the stove in the opening, then you just need to connect the ends of the lower rim. This can be done with the help of strips of steel, which are placed on the logs on both sides and tightened with special bolts.
Further, the opening is framed with special wooden posts. There must be a circulation gap between them and the future furnace, also called cutting. There must be a gap under the wall in the foundation of the house, which will be equal to the width of the base of the furnace on each side.
The main requirement for laying a stove is tightness. That is why only whole bricks go to the furnace without any cracks, and the seams are made thin - no more than 5 mm.
It is not necessary to achieve airtightness by coating all the walls of the furnace with clay from the inside - this will reduce thermal conductivity and increase the deposits of soot and soot. In addition, the clay flakes off and clogs the channels inside the oven, which will be quite problematic to clean. Today, the following methods are used:
The seams will be ligated due to the use of bonded and spoon masonry or non-full-size building material in the corners.
If a ceramic brick is used, it must be soaked beforehand, as it will "pull" all moisture from the solution.
When laying, be sure to remove excess mixture, especially on the inside of the oven. Lay the outer walls of the stove "in brick", and the inner walls "in half a brick". Laying of rows is the order of actions of laying in each subsequent row. Due to this process, anyone can build a Russian stove.
The first row is made of burnt bricks, it absorbs little moisture.
For the first row, the corners are laid out from cut bricks.
The second row begins with the masonry of the oven walls, cleanings are laid in front and on the left side. As a rule, an ash pan is formed on the front part on the right side of the furnace.
In the third row , the cleanings on the left are laid without solution. From the front side, the blower and cleaning doors are installed.
The doors are mounted using baked steel wire, which is installed in the cuts in the bricks and fastened with masonry mortar.
In the fourth row , the hearth channels overlap.
On the fifth row , install the grate of the small firebox. To install the inside of the firebox, refractory bricks are used, it is also laid without using mortar.
Next is the row of installation of the water heating tank on the left, and the laying of the firebox from special refractory bricks continues.
In the seventh row , the grate of the stove furnace is being installed, the walls of the furnace and the first firebox are mounted. The right wall must be reinforced with a steel strip.
In the eighth and ninth rows , the masonry of the walls and internal channels continues. The doors of the stove and small firebox are mounted.
In the tenth row the arches of the first and second fireboxes will be connected.
Cover the bottom of the furnace. And the smoke channels are taken out into the furnace.
In the next row , a steel angle is mounted on the leading edge of the masonry, a plate is installed on top. The space of the right firebox is covered with a special removable grate.
In the twelfth row , the front walls of the furnace and the side walls of the slab begin to be laid using refractory bricks.
The furnace flap is mounted. To the left of the stove, the lower part of the chimney begins to form.
Next, you need to make an arch template from wood and plywood sheets. The vaults of the arch will be laid out on them.
From 13 to 16th row laying of the furnace walls continues and the furnace mouth is blocked.
In the seventeenth row y begins a certain narrowing of the furnace vault and expansion of the main chimney. And the back wall of the oven is reinforced with a steel tie.
In the 18th row , the furnace vault will overlap, and the front wall of the furnace will begin to be laid, which forms an overtube.
In the 19th row the front wall of the furnace is strengthened with a tie, the walls are being installed higher crucibles, forming a specific backfill space.
Further the arch of the crucible is completely covered with sand and compacted well.
This is necessary to increase the heat capacity and ensure high-quality baking of bread.
In the 21st row the stove is closed, and the overtube will gradually narrow towards the chimney.
From 22 to 23rd rows there is a chimney laying and a certain narrowing of the overtube.
In the 24th row : the overtube will be closed with a special ventilation flap.
From 25 to 26th row the gap above the overtube is connected to the chimney.
Next, the laying proceeds depending on the height of the room : from the outside, the chimney will narrow with a step in front of the ceiling, and then a pipe will be formed, which will pass through the ceiling and the roof. This concludes the construction of the Russian stove with your own hands.
It remains only to lay the pipe above the roof surface - and you can safely start heating!
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