Home-made machine for polishing stones, rings, cufflinks and other decorations - in each of these products, stones play the role of a sculpture, artistic and building material, and also serve as the main detail of applied artistic composition.
Think we are talking about precious stones? No, the simplest ones.
The stone will not reveal its beauty to everyone - it reveals it only to the patient. But how much effort is needed to properly cut the stone, grind and polish and process to get the intended shape.
For this work, stones give a picture of millennia, revives and pleases with magical shades and overflows.
If a person at least once can achieve such a result by himself by means of manual stone processing with his own hands , he will fall in love with this business completely and irrevocably.
It all starts with the search for a stone. It can be both minerals and ore rocks. Jasper, agate, crystal brushes and flint received special attention. But this is just the beginning.
Next comes the processing, during which the stone is cut with cutting discs, which can be found in any diamond tool store. Hobbyists prefer discs with a diameter of 125 to 200 mm and use them on a 150-200 watt engine through a belt drive. After cutting, it is important to cool the blade on both sides.
Making a machine for cutting stone in simple conditions is easy to make. If you look at the design, you can easily understand where the cooling is coming in and where which parts will be located.
Grinding stones to create flat plates can be produced even on plain glass using abrasive powders. You should sprinkle the glass and apply some powder and you can start. When grinding, the powder adds a little, as the abrasive wears out, and water is needed to maintain the creamy mass.
When grinding from a coarser powder to a fine powder (by fraction), the stone, glass and hands should be thoroughly washed with soap and a brush: if even a little of the larger fraction gets into the powder of the smaller fraction, everything will be ruined ..
When the stone is sanded, it should be polished on a felt / felt mechanical wheel, the diameter of which should be between 140 and 200 mm. In the polishing process, use chromium oxide powder and water. The rotation of the circle should reach a speed of 410 to 700 rpm.
This is just one way to handle it, although there are actually many more.
For those who have fallen in love with manual stone processing at home, we would like to offer an excellent machine design for processing small stones. Since the scheme is extremely simple, we will give only recommendations.
Dry cleaning can be used to remove surface deposits. Its advantages are that the samples practically do not suffer from chips and scratches. When processing stone at home, you can use a 5-15% solution of oxalic / hydrochloric acid.
Important: Before using these acids, make sure that the processed minerals do not dissolve in it. Aragonite and azurite are not subject to acid treatment.
When processing lapis lazuli and turquoise, you should be careful, as they dissolve, although slowly, but also. To soften organic residues, the stones are soaked in acetic acid. Fat compounds are perfectly removed with acetone and gasoline.
Some household chemicals are highly effective for dry cleaning, for example, "Antikipin", which perfectly removes carbonate limescale shells from minerals. For hard-to-reach areas, use Progress detergent.
In the final stages of processing, chemical minerals can be cleaned with glass and crystal cleaners.
The effect will also be from the "chemical bath", that is, you boil the mineral in a pressure cooker under pressure. Thanks to this technique, steam will penetrate even into places inaccessible to humans. After processing, the stones should be well rinsed under running water.
Stones that have already been washed and cleaned should be sorted.
Someone collects only beautiful samples or fossils, rare species.Most of them subject all the found material to grinding and polishing, which helps to reveal the beauty of stones, and experienced people sometimes find planes in the sand that, when cut, reveal a picture of overflowing colors, bizarre landscapes and even portraits.
As a result, someone simply collects stones, and someone uses them for crafts, combinations with wood and metal.
But before you start, you should split the stone and remove the excess. For this process (preparation), we will make a special device that will help in working with large samples.
We need a clamp with two teeth made of hardened metal (as an option, use a vice, in which 2 corners with teeth from the winners will be mounted).
The grinding and cutting machine can be made on the basis of an electric drilling device or an EZS-1 sharpener. In this case, we will have 2 shaft outputs, on one of which there will be a cartridge 6, and on the other an emery wheel or a circle with a diamond coating. The power of such a device will be 250 watts, and the rotational speed is ~ 2750 rpm.
For processing stones for jewelry at home, you can take other electric motors, the power of which will be in the range from 250 to 500 watts and the rotation speed from 1400 to 3000 rpm.
Use a box with a hinged lid as a support for the machine. The machine itself should be bolted to the cover. This modification of the working tool will allow the machine to be installed at an angle.
A side table is attached to the box from the side of the cartridge. Its height can be adjusted to work with circles of different diameters.
We put a bar from a duralumin corner 2.5 * 2.5 cm on the attached station. On the side, install a protective guard from the cutting wheel. We draw a middle line along the protective fence and the table, which will help when placing the stone for cutting.
You will also need a tray with water to cool the cutting circle, which we will put under the side table. Use a soapy solution to reduce friction when cooling. Place another pan of water under the faceplate.
When the stone is being cut, it is fed along the punk guide, which can be adjusted to the thickness of the plate to be cut. The stone is fed only towards the cutting wheel.
Cooling with water can be done in the form of a moistened piece of foam rubber, which should be held in the left hand on the side of the cutting wheel, since the right will feed the stone.
If the stone is large, it is better to hold it with both hands, and press the foam rubber and the stone to the instrument. For additional stability, the edge is cut off the stone, as a result of which we have a support platform. If this option does not suit you, the stone can be installed in a cardboard box to size, filled with cement mortar and, after hardening, we cut the stone with cement.When the cut is finished, carefully remove the cement.
When cutting a large stone, it can be difficult, so you first need to cut it, and insert three blades of thin steel plates into these grooves. This will allow you to cut stones that are slightly larger than the diameter of the cutting tools.
Before the process, it should be glued with epoxy glue. On a wet surface, circle the cracks with a pencil to make them easier to see. Before gluing, the stone is dried so that there is no water in the crack.
To do this, we heat the stone on an electric stove, and then cool it to 60 degrees Celsius. Apply glue with a stick or brush to the stone that has not yet cooled down so that it penetrates deeper and hardens. After that, the stone will be strong enough so that it can be safely cut into thin slices.
For a brighter color, carefully grind the stone cut. It is fashionable to perform it on a machine that we offered to make for splitting and cutting.
Place the stand cover at an angle for easy sanding. Use diamond coated faceplates for this process, but abrasive wheels (rubberized) will work as well.
The last option is good because you can make grooves in them - this will facilitate grinding round stones. In addition, they are much safer to work with. But there are also disadvantages: during operation, they give a lot of dirt due to rapid wear, and sometimes even scatter into small particles during operation.
It is for this reason that, subject to safety precautions, dense steel casings should be put on them. To do this, you can use an unnecessary aluminum bowl, in which you must first remove the bottom.
The first stage of stone processing by grinding is carried out on a wheel with a large abrasive / diamond grain from 350 to 60 microns, and the second on a wheel with a grain from 60 to 37 microns, and the last - from 37 to 10 microns.
When sanding, you will also need a continuous supply of water, so as with cutting you can use a piece of wet foam. Ideally, there will be an installation above the machine of a tank with a tap and a rubber hose, through which water will drop by drop into the sump.
Use a casing bowl to prevent splashing.
The main tools for the final stage "Polishing" are lapping, polished circles made of fabric and felt and brushes made of plant materials (it is possible from jute). Lap is the most important tool that brings the surface of the stone to a perfect look. They are hand-held and in the form of planesheba. The material for stone processing can be any: tin, cast iron, wood, lead, hematite, fluoroplastic, chalcedony.
They, as a rule, are needed for fine grinding, and during polishing add GOI paste or moist chromium oxide. Instead of the latter, you can use green paint with the same name, since oxide is the main component in its composition.Polishing with its use is carried out with a leather swab. But GOI paste and oxide have their drawbacks - they eat into the cracks of stones and are very difficult to remove even with gasoline. Alumina powder can be used for polishing.
As we already understood, the achievement of different textures of the stone gives a different effect.
Let's consider several popular types of it:
With this type of processing, finished products can be used for finishing the facade, steps of stairs and landings.
Development proceeds in three directions at once - rope (when using abrasive), diamond rope and sawing with a rope, which is reinforced with a carbide washer.
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