The construction of any building always begins with laying the foundation. This is an integral part of construction work, without which it will not be possible to achieve the strength of the structure and its balance.
Most often, the foundation rises above ground level by several centimeters, and sometimes even meters. This part is called the base. A bare concrete wall looks unsightly from an aesthetic point of view, so designers recommend decorating it.
Installing panels on the basement of the house
There are many different materials for decoration, which differ:
Before starting construction work, namely laying the foundation, you need to think in advance about what type of material you would like to finish the basement of the building. This should take into account the features of the exterior, climate and financial capabilities.
In addition, it is necessary to know and clearly understand why exactly finishing with facing materials is needed: is it just an aesthetic whim or an important design detail?
For most people, the exterior of a house is one of the most important points in its construction. Such nuances are discussed in advance with builders, designers and architects.
Facing the basement with decorative tiles
However, few people know that facing the basement is not only about decorating cold sloppy concrete. Finishing works initially have a completely different purpose:
However, there is little result from this. In addition, due to the effects of cold, erosion processes can begin or mold can grow, for which cold and dampness are the ideal environment for existence.
Strong winds, frosts, excessive air humidity, etc. also have a negative impact. Cladding materials protect against such factors, which can be replaced without problems if necessary. The situation with the base is much more serious.
Based on the above factors, we can conclude that finishing the basement is a necessity.
No builder can guarantee the strength and reliability of a building without finishing.
In order to prevent the destruction of the foundation and ensure a comfortable living in the house, the plinth must be finished with cladding materials. You can choose the colors and textures that match the rest of the building materials.
There are also special wall insulation systems. You can choose a protective coating against corrosion, erosion, mildew and mildew.
If you do not know which type of cladding is best, consult a specialist. The architect or builder who builds your home is competent in this matter.
Plastering is considered the most popular method of processing the basement. Its fame is associated with affordability and reliability.
A layer of plaster reinforces, decorates and protects the structure from environmental influences.
Plastered basement of the house
Features of the material.
In order for the plaster to fulfill its function, it is necessary to follow the rules for its application:
Important: The classic cement-sand mortar is best suited for lining the gap. Apply a composition designed for facade decoration on top.
Plastering the basement of the house
Base / plinth pre-cleaning
|Free the basement gaps from excess layers and remove dirt and dust. Also get rid of oil stains.|
Base base primer
|Prime the clean surface with a primer.|
Installing the plaster mesh
| Fill in the plaster mesh.
For 1 sq. m must be at least 16 fasteners. It will be better if you make 20. Use dowels with wide caps.
Securing the plumb lines
| Screw in the screws and attach the plumb lines to them.
The distance between the screws and the corners of the wall is 30 cm. Pull the thread upright over the loose screws. Connect the screws with horizontal threads. Place the threads at a distance of 2 cm from the wall.
Rules for marking for beacons
| Make beacons and fix them with cement mortar .
.. The step is 1.5-2 m. The distance to the corners is 30 cm.
The most reliable material of the beacons is a steel profile.
Applying the mortar to the base
|After the cement has set, apply the cement-sand solution between beacons. For throwing use a ladle, level the protrusions and depressions using the rule. Leave to dry for 6 hours.|
Rubbing the surface of the base
| Remove the beacons and rub the surface with a plaster float.
Installing plastic wrap
|Cover the basement surface with plastic wrap. Leave to harden for 2 weeks. Moisten the surface with water once every 2-3 days. This will aid aging.|
Decorative plaster application
| Prime the base and cover it with decorative plaster.
Plaster for facing is chosen for the following reasons:
The negative features of plaster include:
Since plaster and paint peel off quickly, you need to constantly monitor the condition of the coating on the facade and make regular cosmetic repairs.
A professional to do this work for you quickly and efficiently. However, do not forget that good specialists do not come cheap. But the result is worth it: the base will be durable and protected from all types of damage.
In addition, building materials stores sell special decorative plaster in different colors and textures.
This design is cheap, but it will look great.
To make the facade look elitist and rich, make cladding from stone. Each stone has its own advantages and characteristics. Experts advise to consult with builders or architects before buying, since in a particular case this or that stone may not be suitable. Taken into account: the strength of the foundation, weather conditions and the size of the house.
Types of stone.
Types of stone for facing the basement
In addition to choosing between artificial and natural stone, decide on the texture. The stone can be of the following textures:
Features of natural stone.
Natural stone has various shapes: rectangle, square, circle, non-standard (made to order).
Also has different thicknesses: 0.5 and 1 cm.
This thickness is determined by ease of installation and durability of the structure. As the thickness increases, the stone becomes heavy and there is a risk of delamination.
The positive features of natural stone include:
The complexity of finishing is determined by the size of the stone and tools for work.
You also need to consider that stone is a heavy material. Therefore, not every surface is suitable for cladding. In cases where the surface cannot withstand the stone, it must be strengthened.
How to prepare the surface:
Reinforcement of the base with mesh and then leveling
Mounting the stone on the reinforcing mesh
Important: Tight fastening of the mesh is ensured by metal blooper. Screw them into the mesh.
After reinforcement, level the surface with plaster or concrete. Remember that the concrete mortar cannot be smoothed with sandpaper.
For cladding, the following materials will be needed:
Tips for veneering:
Base, additionally insulated with foam
Facing with artificial stone.
Natural stones look noble, but they have significant drawbacks: high weight and high cost. Therefore, if you do not pretend to be aristocratic and royal nobility, artificial materials may well replace natural ones.
The main thing is to choose the right shape, texture and type of attachment.
Plinth trim with artificial stone
For cladding used: shell, granite, sandstone, etc. (see table below).
The peculiarity of artificial stone of different structures is the ability to create an individual facade of the house.
For such purposes, a stone with a torn structure is most often used.
Finishing with artificial stone practically does not differ from the technology of cladding with natural material. The recommendations for leveling and insulation are similar.
Differences in technology:
The installation of the stone is carried out directly on top of these materials.
Concrete mortar and ceramic adhesive are used for installation. A firm and fresh surface is ensured by applying a layer of primer.
When finishing with decorative stone, the following works are carried out:
Reinforcing mesh installation
Applying a layer of adhesive
Sewing seams with a gun
Features of natural and artificial types of stones.
Find out the features of the most popular stones from the table below:
| ||Shell rock||Low cost, high strength, visual appeal.||Heavy weight, difficult to lay.|
|Limestone||Affordable price, decorative effect, the ability to choose a shape, color and texture.|| Heavy weight, difficult to operate, risk of heavier foundation.
|Granite||Exquisite and rich appearance, resistance to cold and heat.||High cost, heavy weight, risk of foundation collapse.|
|Marble||Durability, aristocratic and rich appearance, 100% protection from damage.||High cost, difficult to install and operate, heavy weight.|
|Gabbro|| Appearance and color resembles a starry sky, high strength, protection from cold, heat and moisture. |
|Exorbitant value, heavy weight, difficult to operate.|
|Labradorite||One of the most beautiful facing stones. Durable, reliable and weather resistant.|| The material is more expensive than all others. It is difficult to stack and weighs a lot.
||Canyon panels||Panels are not much different in appearance from natural stone, but they are much cheaper. They are durable, there are options with insulation.||They are attached to special iron hooks, which is very convenient.|
|Tiles attached to glue|| The panels are lightweight, easy to use. There is a choice of different colors and textures. |
|Attached with glue, so not always suitable. Better to choose models attached to iron hooks.| Facing stone
Brick or its imitation is a classic finish. The material is suitable for any type of exterior, without imparting a low cost to the structure.
Brick can be combined with any type of wall and roof decoration, as it looks equally neat and harmonious with all building materials.
A special substrate is made under the brick, which serves as insulation for walls and floors in residential premises.
The advantages of bricks.
Positive aspects of finishing the basement with bricks:
How to choose the right brick?
If the foundation is designed for heavy loads, choose an ordinary building brick. If the building is on a columnar or strip foundation, use lightweight facing bricks.
Properties that a good brick should have:
The plinth is finished with bricks at a distance of 2-3 cm from the external insulation of the walls.
This creates ventilation and prevents the accumulation of moisture. Grout-free seams, which must be left in the first row, will also contribute to normal ventilation.
Finishing the plinth with bricks
The cladding and load-bearing walls are connected in two ways:
One end is attached to the load-bearing wall, the other - between the rows of masonry.
Important : Every 1 sq. m must have at least 5 bundles with the load-bearing wall.
Place them horizontally every 50-70 cm, vertically every 3-4 rows. In openings, make a tighter strapping.
Methods for preparing the solution:
Add water and stir.
Make balls from the resulting mixture: they will not crumble in your hand.
The cement sets quickly enough. Therefore, prepare the solution in small batches.
Accuracy and accuracy when forming and joining joints - 2 basic rules for laying a basement with a brick.
Consider the methods of facing over the foundation.
Various options for binding brick
Chain binding of brickwork.
Place 2 rows of bricks to expose the inner wall. Level the height of the masonry with the help of brick scraps. They are attached above the rows, laid with their end to the load-bearing wall.
Use a multi-row dressing system. Remove dressings after every third row.
Pay attention to the condition of the foam concrete: if it is poorly dried, after a while the bonded brick, clamped in the rows, can be cut off. This is due to the varying degrees of shrinkage of bricks and foam concrete.
Important: In order for shrinkage not to stop, foam concrete blocks must lie down for some time before starting construction work.
Chain ligation of brickwork
If the final surface will be laid with decorative bricks, start by installing the facing verst.
1st row is laid with a jab, 2nd and 3rd - with a spoon.
If using trim brick halves, poke them.
Laying in reverse.
This method differs from the previous ones in the order of stacking. First, a number of external finishes are laid, then an internal verst and a backlog are built.
In this case, use a bonded binder. Since the bonded masonry is two rows high, the dressing is halfway into the finishing row.
The main advantage of this method is the reliable fastening of internal and external walls.
Recommendations for laying bricks:
Features of brick types are presented in the table:
| || || || || |
||Hyper-pressed|| There are different sizes (Russian, American). |
|Heaviest option, does not absorb water well.|
|Silicate||More economical option. Light weight, easy to operate.||Weak as a facing material, poor hydro and thermal insulation.|
|Ceramic|| The best option for facing among all types of natural bricks. |
It has an internal filled structure, light weight and high strength.
|The material is easy to use, quite high price.|
||Clinker tiles||By technical and physical characteristics are not inferior to natural bricks.||Light weight, easy to handle.|
|Basement panels|| Looks like a real brick, you can order a panel with insulation. |
|Has a polyurethane or polystyrene foam base, easy to install and use.|
Note : If you decide to finish the plinth with a brick or "like a brick", make a separate strip foundation for the facing material. The brick is laid with a small gap from the wall, and the cladding foundation must be attached to the main foundation.
It so happens that brick and natural materials cannot be used for finishing a particular building. At the same time, plaster may not fully satisfy aesthetic needs.
In this case, it is best to give preference to basement siding.It comes in the form of panels and mimics the pattern, color and texture of a natural material. Moreover, siding can be used to decorate not only the basement, but also all the walls completely.
Siding options for plinth finishing
Note : To siding walls and the same the plinth looked harmonious, for their finishing it is recommended to select material of different colors. As a rule, darker shades are suitable for the basement, and the walls need to be lined with light siding.
The material consists of the following components:
Types of siding.
| Metal soffit. Mainly used for roof sheathing. It can be either solid or perforated to provide better roof ventilation.
| Wall metal siding. There are three subtypes: || |
Wall metal siding
|Straight metal siding. These panels are used exclusively for vertical mounting.||
Straight metal siding
| Metal siding "under the bar ". This type of siding outwardly imitates a round log and is similar to a block house type of wood paneling.
Metal siding "under the timber"
The siding is equipped with special panels for fastening. This leaves a gap between the cladding and the wall. It should be filled with insulation or shellfish. Thus, the structure becomes more durable and the level of thermal insulation of the house increases.
In hardware stores, you can choose any color, texture and shape of building siding panels.
In addition, there are original options that imitate not only stone and brick, but even wooden beams, roughly chipped shingles, ship boards, etc.
Advantages of siding.
How to clad a basement with siding
Siding is chosen due to a long list of positive features:
Instructions for finishing work in the plinth area using siding:
Removing defects in the base
|Clean the base, remove protruding parts, repair cracks and other defects.|
Fixing the profile strips
| Fix the profile strips to the wall. Use dowels for fixing. Fix the bottom bar horizontally.
It should be located 2-3 cm from the ground. A top bar is attached at the top. Parallel to the upper and lower strips, the middle one is attached, exactly in the middle.
| Lay a layer of mineral wool and cover with a windscreen. You can use expanded polystyrene.
Marking and setting the starting strip
| Make a starting strip along the lower bar ... The strip must run horizontally.
Measure the distance between the basement and the wall.
These data will be the dimensions of the corner bar. Attach the corner strip to the corner to the left of the structure.
Siding installation rules
| Cut the panel to the left. Then slide it into the starter bar and slide it into the corner. Leave a gap of 6-10 mm.
When fixing, do not tighten the screws to the end by 1-2 mm.
Installation of basement siding
| Next, do everything in the same way until the corner. Cut the panel in front of the corner and insert it into the starter strip. Dock with the previous part and secure. Put the bar on the corner and fix it.
Installing the cornice
|Close the top edge with the cornice. You can also use the finishing bar for this purpose.|
Important : If you neglect the recommendations for fastening screws, the panels will deform and become unusable
First of all, it is worth noting that the plinth may have different locations. The most successful option is the one in which the foundation protrudes slightly forward from the walls, forming a small step. This arrangement is ideal as the plinth is protected from excessive moisture, dirt, etc.
Installing ebb tides
However it should be remembered that an obligatory stage of cladding is the installation of ebbs. Otherwise, the finish won't make any sense.
There are such types of ebb tides, depending on the material of their manufacture:
The metal is covered with a protective anti-corrosion coating, due to which water does not destroy the ebb and the base itself.
In addition, copper sheets are in good harmony with bricks and natural stone.
You can use ceramic bricks. Such ebb tides will be most appropriate if the base is finished with natural brick.
Fasteners for sills to protect the cladding
Step-by-step instructions for installing an ebb:
Marking at the level
Using a chopping paint line
Pre-cut metal shims
Important : To prevent water from being trapped in the drain , bend the side of the visor facing the wall up, and the opposite side down.
Use silicone sealant or plaster and putty to get rid of any voids. Chips with cracks are also removed in the same way. If using any of the corrective materials, wait until the wall is completely dry.
Leveling the base with plaster mortar
Step - 300-400 mm. Make sure the holes are flush.
Scheme of ebb attachment
Important : If you knock on the plastic with a hammer during bending, damage the structure. Place a rubber pad over it. Felt can be used for the same purposes. Leave one edge unbent.
Option of black glossy shimmer
Ebbs on the base
Consider the following nuances when installing base / plinth sills:
There are a lot of options for finishing the basement and ebb. The main thing is to reasonably calculate how much building material is needed and which cladding will look the most advantageous, while being suitable for the type of structure. You also need to assess financial and physical capabilities. Initially, it is better to entrust the work to specialists in order to prevent annoying mistakes due to inexperience.
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