Many homeowners succumb to the temptation to equip their home with a comfortable residential attic. Such a desire is natural, this is a wonderful opportunity to increase the area and living space of your home. In addition, it gives the building a special charm, brings a certain amount of romanticism to its appearance.
Special roof windows enhance the impression. Today, most of the new private housing is immediately built with an attic.
But often, wishing to increase home ownership, and in not new houses, the owners equip and insulate old non-residential attics.
The mansards are located almost under the roof itself. What are the usual requirements for them? It is important that it is cool enough there in summer and dry and warm in winter. In order for a room to meet the aforementioned requirements, it is important to know what processes are taking place in it, to understand the essence of competent insulation.
It is not difficult to carry out all the necessary work with your own hands, their technology is quite simple.
The main thing for this is a conscientious partner and the availability of the necessary tools. If everything is done technologically correctly, the rafters made of wood will not get wet or rot, and the thermal insulation material will serve for a long time and reliably.
Housing under the roof - the room is special. Its walls are close to the surface of the roof, while the ventilation gaps are only 10-15 cm in size. A characteristic feature of the room is connected with this - it instantly gets cold in winter, and literally gets hot in summer before our eyes.
In winter, such a valuable heat for housing evaporates through the roof, while in summer it, on the contrary, heats up a lot, noticeably increasing the temperature of the room.
The processes that take place depend on the quality of ventilation, as well as the thermal conductivity of the materials used for manufacturing.
In winter, the heat rising from the radiators spreads under the roof arch, and then evaporates due to the heat transfer of the roofing materials. The snow lying on the roof begins to melt and, turning into ice, destroys its cover.
In the summer it gets hot, heating the entire structure, which is why the air in the room is also very hot.
If the building has a familiar cold attic, then everything happens differently.
The function of a heat insulator in such housing is performed by the air in the attic room, and snow on its roof in winter.
The filling materials on the floor, together with the air, trap heat coming from below, from the dwelling.
Thanks to this, even in very frosty winters, t in the attic is kept at about 0 degrees. Snow does not melt outside, being another additional insulator.
In summer, t is regulated by vents on the gables, which act as a kind of ventilation system. How to insulate the attic?
The room should be properly insulated: carefully selected material, required parameters, and in full compliance with the technology.
The choice of the optimum material is a very important task. After all, a lot depends on its type - the thickness of the insulation "cake" itself, the number of minimum layers in it.
Special requirements are imposed on him:
A material with a coefficient not higher than 0.05 W / m * K is best suited.
If the roof suddenly leaks, it should not get wet and lose its qualities. Or it should be well insulated to avoid getting wet.
Due to their location, lightweight mineral-based materials can creep away, leaving voids. Therefore, it is so important that it can keep its shape.
Of course, all these points are ideal, but this is not often the case.
In each specific case, the required thickness of thermal insulation is calculated strictly individually. If you select this indicator approximately, then most likely 25 cm will be enough.
This is perhaps the most successful solution for insulating the attic roof from the inside. This is a plastic material that fits compactly between the rafters, covering all the free space. Mineral wool does not support combustion and does not burn itself.
It is extremely lightweight and has excellent insulating properties.
Basalt wool in slabs remarkably retains its shape. Its disadvantage is that it easily absorbs steam and water, and therefore needs additional hydro and vapor barrier. This is very important: if mineral wool gets wet, then it will irrevocably lose more than half of its useful qualities. If this happens, you will have to change it.
Despite this drawback, it is one of the most suitable materials for roof insulation from the inside. It is easy to work with her, she has an affordable price. Strict adherence to technological instructions when working with it neutralizes possible disadvantages.
For the middle strip, the layer of wool used as insulation should be at least 15 cm, for more northern regions, the indicator increases to 30 cm.
This is a very popular and demanded material.
But the use of expanded polystyrene for warming the attic should be considered in more detail.
The material has certain characteristics that can be considered virtually unique.
This is its extremely low thermal conductivity, minimum weight, low moisture permeability, ideally rigid shape.
But along with these wonderful positive qualities, it also has obvious disadvantages. Different grades of material have different degrees of fire resistance.
And for insulation, its flammable varieties are often used. And this is extremely dangerous. When ignited, the fire rises, and if the insulation catches fire, it will be almost impossible to survive in such a burning attic.
For work, expanded polystyrene is not very convenient, so when cutting, cutting and installing it crumbles quite a lot. When using it, gaps remain between the rafters, and they have to be somehow repaired.
From time to time, it collapses, and begins to crumble even more. Based on all of the above, we can conclude that it is not very reasonable to use foam in this case.
This is a wonderful material for warming the attic outside, for installation under the roof, on the rafters. It is quite durable, perfectly retains its shape, it is not afraid of high humidity and, which is very important, it does not burn. Special attention should be paid to the fact that insulation requires a not very thick layer - 5-10 cm.
This is a new generation material. With the help of a special installation, it is blown into the voids of the material to be insulated, without leaving any gaps or holes. Such spraying prevents the formation of cold bridges.
This material is not afraid of fire and water, it is lightweight, durable, keeps its shape well. But he also has a minus - he has an extremely low vapor permeability index: he hardly breathes.
Therefore, without the arrangement of forced ventilation, there will be constant high humidity in the attic.
Perhaps this is one from the most suitable materials for insulation from the inside, and its use is actually an ideal option.
He, like the previous one, penetrates into the smallest holes, filling all the gaps.
It is also extremely light, not afraid of moisture, does not support combustion at all and "breathes" perfectly.
In addition, its fundamental difference from other materials - it is completely harmless to health and absolutely environmentally friendly.
Neither the smallest particles, nor even the evaporation of ecowool can harm health, unlike the same mineral wool.
When choosing the best way to insulate the attic roof, you should pay attention not only to the performance characteristics of the insulating material, but also to specific features of its application. The most convenient way to insulate a room is from the inside: if there are no contraindications to such, and space allows.
Various types of insulation are used for this - both mineral wool and extruded foam, ecowool or polyurethane foam are blown out. The key to the reliability and durability of materials is the observance of a competent combination, or "pie" of roof insulation.
This will also ensure the comfort of living under it, that is, in the attic room.
When using wadded materials for insulation, a vapor barrier film must be used. With its help, mineral wool will not be exposed to moisture coming from the living space with steam.
If the glass wool is replaced with polyurethane foam or ecowool, there is no need for a vapor barrier.
Regardless of the chosen insulation, waterproofing is required in any case. Its purpose is to protect the wooden parts of the roof structure. The role of waterproofing is played by special superdiffuse membranes, which are distinguished by special qualities.
They can release steam to the outside without letting moisture in.
A ventilation gap must be left between the roof and the waterproofing membrane. Its size can vary from 4 cm to 10 cm, depending on the material and type of roof. Through it, excess steam will be removed from the insulation.
It is more convenient to do this while construction is still in progress. If it is already finished, you will have to remove the roofing material.
The external method of roof insulation keeps all the available living space intact. The solutions of some designers also suggest playing with roof rafters as decorative elements of the interior.
Only plate material is used for external insulation having a high density.
Penoplex (extruded polystyrene foam) belongs to them.
Moisture is not afraid of him, and he does not need a vapor barrier.
"Pie" for external insulation with expanded polystyrene looks like this:
An obvious plus of such insulation is free access to the rafters, at any time, facilitating their inspection and even repair. The method of insulation by Penoplex over the rafters differs in that it allows you to equip the heat-insulating protective layer completely, preventing the creation of cold bridges.
The front part of the attic is usually insulated together with the facade of the building, that is, outside. How to choose the right material for this? It depends on what was used in the construction of the house and, of course, the preferences and desires of the owner.
If a special curtain wall system is used for insulation, glass wool with waterproofing and vapor barrier films can be used as insulation. And under the planned wet facade, you can successfully put ordinary foam.The main thing for success is strict adherence to technology.
Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020
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Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020