The main stage in preparing a house under construction for interior decoration is the organization of high-quality power supply. Wiring in a wooden house must be arranged in compliance with all electrical installation rules. This will protect the home from a short circuit fire, and will also provide an uninterrupted supply of electricity.
Do-it-yourself wiring only at first glance seems like an impossible task.
With proper development of the circuit and strict observance of the instructions, it can be mounted in several stages without resorting to paid services of an electrician.
Safe wiring in a private wooden house is mounted in three ways: closed (on the inside of walls and ceilings), open (retro wiring) and using cable channels.
Concealed wiring is laid through thin metal tubes. The main advantage of this installation is fire safety. The steel from which the support pipe is made, in the event of a short circuit or a spark, will prevent the fire from spreading to combustible materials. In addition, if you hide the wiring inside the wood walls, you do not need to finish them outside.
Experienced electricians recommend using a square pipe or metal corrugated tubes. These materials are more convenient to work with.
The only disadvantage of the closed method is the high price and complexity of electrical installation.
THIS IS IMPORTANT: The pipes, through which the electric cables are laid, must be grounded!
Particular attention should be paid to the distance from the cable to the wall. PUE in the Russian Federation regulate at least 1 centimeter. Otherwise, a layer of metal or asbestos will have to be laid between the wall surface and the cable.
The cost of open wiring is considerable, but the aesthetics are excellent.
The use of modern cable channels allows you to mount electrical wiring in a wooden house in the shortest possible time.
It should be remembered that laying wires in ordinary plastic skirting boards is prohibited! It is allowed to use only specialized corrugated pipes and cable channels made of non-combustible materials. At the stage of final finishing, they cannot be sewn up under drywall!
It will be cheaper and easiest to carry out such wiring with your own hands.
THIS IS IMPORTANT: Regardless of the chosen installation method, use cables marked "NG" (nym or vvgng) for wiring in wooden log cabins and glued-beam houses. They are made of non-flammable materials.
The drawing of the future layout of wires in a private wooden house can be made even by hand.
The main thing to do is to mark all cables for wiring, junction boxes, sockets, switches and outlets for lighting fixtures. A well-designed diagram will help not to get confused at the laying stage, and during the operation of the house it will eliminate damage to the wires (for example, if you have to drill a wall).
Sockets and switches should be planned so that in the future they will be in the public domain (not behind large furniture or behind doors). Step-by-step instructions with photos and videos will help you create the perfect scheme for your home ownership.
THIS IS IMPORTANT: Experienced electricians recommend assembling lines for lighting devices in several groups (grouping by room).
Separate power lines should be provided for outlets.
When organizing the space of the kitchen area, the declared power of household appliances should be taken into account. The number of sockets must match the number of appliances. This will ensure their safe operation and also facilitate maintenance of the switchboard.
Correct layout = maximally secure network.
The power supply of the house is a single, uninterruptedly working system, in which everything is thought out to the smallest detail: from the section and type of cable to the power of the circuit breaker.
Depending on the selected device method (closed, retro or in a cable channel), the following tools and materials are required for installation:
According to the prepared diagram, a puncher cut out round holes in the walls for distribution boxes, switches and sockets. Installation is in progress. When laying cables in a steel pipe, sand all metal burrs at the joints, otherwise there is a risk of damage to the insulation.
THIS IS IMPORTANT: Holes for the junction box must be drilled above each of the switches.
In places where they will be located, it is better to leave the tails of the cable "with a margin" of up to 20 cm. This will make the wiring and connection device easier.
Wiring in corrugations or cable channels does not require additional drilling. You just need to draw marking lines along the walls as in the prepared diagram. Then the attachment points for the junction boxes and switches / sockets are indicated.
Next, using a screwdriver, a cable channel is attached to a wooden wall, into which a wire of the corresponding section is laid.
Both external and internal wiring must be installed without unnecessary twists and connections.Most often, short circuit and fire occurs in them. If necessary, the two cables are "soldered" using specialized terminal blocks, not electrical tape or a soldering iron.
THIS IS IMPORTANT: Use modern, color-coded cables for wiring.
Zero is a wire with blue or blue and white insulation, ground is a combination of yellow and green, phase is any other colors and shades.
The size of the switchboard should be selected so that after connecting all cables and devices, it remains a place. So you will have the opportunity, if necessary, to connect several more consumers to it.
INSTALLATION RULES FOR ORGANIZING THE PANEL:
Zero is output to the third terminal. On the second terminal of the metering device there is a phase output, and a zero tap is connected to the fourth terminal.
THIS IS IMPORTANT: Do not neglect the labeling of consumer groups. By designating each, you will make it easier to work with them when operating the wiring.
When the wiring of electricity to the house is completed, they are checked. Before starting testing, make sure that all household and lighting devices are disconnected from the mains. After turning on the input machine, power is supplied to each line.
In the event that no problems have been identified, all outputs for lighting are connected. A screwdriver with an indicator is used to check the phases, the absence of voltage on the neutral wire and grounding in the sockets. If everything is in order, then, after turning off the machine, you must stretch all the contacts.
If you are sure that the best wiring is one that is made by your own hands, remember:
minimum of adhesions and twists, maximum of a solid wire from the circuit breaker to the point of destination.
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