Initially, the foundation is examined - on the basis of this, the scale and method of work is planned. Inspection of the foundation is carried out either with the help of pits - several pits along the perimeter of the structure, exposing the base to the entire depth, or with the help of a trench half a meter wide - a meter wide along the entire perimeter of the house.
After inspection and establishing the reasons, a decision is made to partially repair and strengthen, or completely replace the base, possibly under a separate wall.
To replace the foundation under a wooden house, the new type is determined:
It can be monolithic, however, when replacing or repairing the foundation without dismantling or transferring the whole house by cranes, which is very costly and not always possible, a tape type is used, which is ideal for replacing the foundation of a wooden house today.
In case of partial repairs and when strengthening the foundation, it is enough to dig in the base around the perimeter or use pits to the depth of the base and take the necessary actions.
How to raise a house for capital work on replacing the foundation?
Cranes are not suitable due to the fabulous high cost works. The most popular method is to use jacks, which can be rented from specialized organizations or from the railway depot. Most likely, more than four of them will be needed - about a dozen, depending on the massiveness of the building.
Remove furniture and floorboards from the house to lighten the overall weight. The crowns, especially the lower ones, are fastened with steel brackets.
ATTENTION! It is not allowed to raise the house diagonally.
Jacks are placed on both sides of the wall, on substrates of metal sheets, thick plywood, boards, or densely spaced beams. It will not be superfluous, in order to prevent the logs from falling off the jacks, after installing the jacks, put a load on them so that the substrates are firmly sunk into the ground, relieve the pressure and reinstall the jacks.
The emphasis is made only on well-preserved logs starting from half a meter from the corners, worn out ones must be replaced along with the foundation. In places of emphasis, it will be correct to install elongated metal plates to distribute the pressure of the jacks on the logs.
Then low multiple rises are made by 1-2 cm, carefully monitoring the condition of the logs, walls , roofs, distortions of door and window openings. In these cases, a level or an observer must be used, who, from a distance of ten to twenty meters, evaluates the synchronism of the rise. It is imperative to install and replace the props with each lift.
Bricks and oak planks are ideal (you can use flooring from home). In case of unforeseen deflections of the logs, the lower rims should be from two free jacks. The entire structure is raised to a height of 15 cm.
IMPORTANT! The process of raising a wooden house takes about a day and does not allow haste.
To dismantle the old cement or rubble foundation, a perforator punches seams and gaps where the wedges are driven with a sledgehammer.
Dismantling must be done completely, to the ground.
As a replacement for the foundation under a wooden house, the strip is still best suited.
Preparation and pouring of the strip foundation is carried out as follows.
It is necessary to dig a "P" -shaped pit (trench) 15 cm wider than the previous foundation below the level of freezing of the soil and the old foundation.
Pour sand with a layer of 15 cm, moisten and compact.
Further, it will not be superfluous to fill in a layer of rubble and tamp it well. A frame is mounted from reinforcement (metal rods 10-20mm in cross-section). Wooden formwork is being built. Next, the waterproofing formwork is laid (roofing material is excellent). Finally, the solution is poured.
You can divide the trench into sectors by separating the corners of the trench. In this case, the solution is first poured in the corners. The reinforcement mesh of the new section must be connected to the previous one. After the solution has completely hardened, the wooden formwork is disassembled, temporary supports are installed. It will not be superfluous to make at least a visual inspection of the work performed and the base of the crowns of a wooden house.
Lowering the house to the foundation is carried out gradually by 3-5 cm.
ATTENTION! The entire process of replacing the foundation cannot be done alone, it is especially important at the stages of raising and lowering the structure.
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