From what it is worth starting the wiring with your own hands in the apartment. It is worth noting immediately the fact that at the moment the open type of electrical wiring is no longer used in apartments, and therefore in the article we will consider the work on installing an exclusive hidden method. How to start an electrician from scratch? To begin with, you should choose a suitable cable, familiarize yourself with the technical characteristics of each brand.
Below you will find detailed and step-by-step instructions for installing an electrician from the very beginning, which is perfect for beginners who want to try their hand at their own electrician.
This is not as costly and time-consuming process as installing wiring in the house.
This is due to the fact that there is no need to bring the line inside the dwelling, because in the apartments this is provided by the development company.
Wiring the cable for each room consists of a number of such steps:
- Drawing up an electrical diagram.
- Calculation of the required amount of materials, as well as fittings for wiring.
- Implementation of marking and strobing schemes.
- Attach the cable.
- Installation of the switch, sockets and distributors boxes.
- Assembling the introduction shield.
- Calling the line using a special tester.
The electrical wiring diagram for the apartment will not be difficult at all do it even with your own hands, without outside help. To do this, it is best to arm yourself with a photocopy of the housing plan, on which it will be convenient to mark the installation locations of socket outlets, lighting fixtures, switches and other components.
Let's talk about all the main points further. The starting point of any scheme is the installation location of the switchboard inside the apartment. As a rule, this place is a corridor, and it is placed near the front door, at a height of 150 cm from the floor surface.
When drawing up a diagram, we recommend that you take into account the following recommendations from professionals, as well as some rules and regulations:
Due to the special requirements for their rigidity, sometimes the channels are laid diagonally.
Switches for the apartment should be located at the entrance to the dwelling, on the side of the door handle. The installation height of the switches is not standardized according to SNiP and GOST, but usually it is either 0.8 meters or 1.5 meters. According to European standards, it is better to make the switches lower so that it is more convenient to use them even for children.
In the kitchen, the number of outlets must correspond to the number of household appliances, and it is recommended to take at least 4 pieces. This is even regulated in SP 31-110-2203 "Design and installation of electrical installations in public and residential buildings" in paragraph 14. 27. The distance from the fastener to the window and door should not be less than 0. 1 meter.
In short, outlets should have protective curtains or should be located in an area where they are least likely to be exposed to water.
By the way, when it comes to the kitchen and bathroom, the modern solution will be an excellent protection against water leakage. It will make it possible to save your home and the apartment of neighbors below you from flooding in case of emergency, or when you forget to turn off the water. So, when repairing and installing electrical wiring in an apartment, you will need to lay a separate cable from the shield to protect against leaks.Connections of the control module to an AC source must be carried out using a special residual current device, or as it is called RCD; You can also use a differential automatic device with an operating current of no more than 30 mA.
Neptune is a fairly popular protection against leaks.
When selecting sockets and switches, be sure to pay attention to the installation method - external or internal. If you plan to install them in socket boxes, then you will need to buy products only for internal installation work. To connect the wires, you should use lever or screw terminal blocks (for example, Vago), PPE caps or sleeves. You can also make the connection using the soldering or welding method, but never use twists (this is prohibited by PUE 2.
1. 21). For this reason, it is worth buying products with stock, because you will be making the connection.
In order to start laying electrics in an apartment, choose automatic switches and protective shutdown devices from well-known manufacturers, in the budget segment it is KEAZ or IEK, and if you choose which is more expensive, then these are ABB, Legrand and Sсhnеidеr Еlesstris.
Be sure to include a 30 mA residual current device in your apartment wiring diagram, which will protect against electric shock.
It is recommended to install a separate 10 mA protective device for the bathroom. The denomination must be higher than that of the machine. For example, if you have a 16 A machine, then the RCD must be 25A. If the circuit breaker is 25A, then the disconnecting device should be 32A and so on.
If you do not know which cable is better to choose, then rely on copper.
To do the wiring in the apartment with your own hands, you can purchase a copper cable from NYM or VVGng. These are the two most suitable brands of wires in the domestic market. For lighting, select a cross section of 1.5 mm 2 , and put everything on the machine at 10A, and lay a cable with a cross section of 2.5 mm 2 on the sockets and put the machine at 16 A .
In order to connect an electric stove and other powerful household appliances, it would be best to buy a wire with a cross section of 4 mm 2 and protect it with a 25 A machine.
If you wish, so that the electrical wiring in the apartment is completely safe, it is worth putting a special voltage relay inside the shield, which will protect against overvoltages in the network due to phase imbalance, which is quite common in an old residential background due to a zero break. We present you a diagram of the assembly of the shield, on the basis of which you can select the components. If grounding is provided in the apartment, then the scheme will be slightly different.We have a block transformer substation near our house - Block complete transformer substations and electricity is drawn from there and everything works great!
First and a rather important point, which is worth knowing for sure before starting work on electrical installation - in panel houses it is most often forbidden to chisel walls according to the Decree of the Moscow Government of February 8, 2005 No.
73-PP. In addition, according to Government Decree No. 508, load-bearing walls cannot be gouged. In this case, the most correct option for concealed installation would be to do the wiring through existing channels, under the ceiling or on the floor (the option with a ceiling is suitable for those who want a suspended or suspended ceiling). The option with existing ducts or ceiling is the best option.
If the wiring in the apartment changes, and you are planning to cover the walls with drywall, then laying the wiring behind the drywall is an excellent solution.
Please note, that it is completely forbidden to grind the ceiling in apartments! An unambiguous option for which ceiling slitting is allowed is the application of an additional layer of plaster on the ceiling surface, in which the cable will be laid. Such a layer can be carefully chipped without touching the monolith.
It turns out that the most affordable option is to lay a line from the switchboard to the sockets and switches along the ceiling, floor or channels, and then make vertical grooves and "wells" for mounting socket boxes. Another important point to pay attention to is that noisy work is allowed from 9 a.
m. to 7 p.m. (except Sat and Sun), and there should be an hour of silence from 13 to 15 hours. Shtroblenie refers to noisy work, and therefore can cause not only the anger of neighbors, but also cause a fine (for individuals it is from 1,000 to 5,000 rubles).
And now let's go back to how to start laying the electrics in the apartment. As mentioned earlier, the length of the conductors must be purchased with a margin, and it will go to connect them together (on each side of the cable insulation will be removed by 5-10 cm) and to connect sockets, lamps, switches (a margin for each point should be from 10 to 15 cm).
This stage is quite simple, you just need to connect all switches and sockets in the apartment. To do this, it is worth installing socket boxes and special boxes in the grooves. It is recommended to "seat" all these elements on alabaster, because it quickly and reliably adheres to the wall surface.
The last stage of installation is the assembly of the terminal board. According to the diagram drawn up, you need to connect the residual current devices and circuit breakers.There should not be any difficulties in installing these two devices, because the input wire must be wound from above, and the outgoing wire to the junction box from the bottom. You can clearly see the process of connecting these two devices in the video below.
After all the safety devices in the apartment are connected, you should carry out a continuity test of the electrical wiring using a multimeter to make sure that all work has been done correctly.
For these purposes, it is better to call a competent electrician to check everything. The service of checking the completed wiring is not that expensive. If there are no problems, then you can safely turn on the machine and test the finished line. Using this technology, you can lay the wiring yourself. We hope that the connection instructions were useful to you!
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