Alkyd-urethane varnish - characteristics, properties and how to apply it correctly
Surface treatment with protective compounds is required for almost every type of surface or material, especially substrates that are subject to mechanical influences or factors that adversely affect their condition, as well as their appearance.
This question is relevant even for wood and metal. On the market you can find many different products recommended for similar materials, among which alkyd-urethane varnishes can be distinguished.
This composition is a mixture of synthetic resins and natural solvents.
The components of the varnish provide its high level of adhesion and resistance to moisture.
requirements for the quality of alkyd-type products establish certain standards that the composition must comply with - first of all, the varnish must be colorless, and a matte or glossy protective layer must be created on the surface. Certain products may have certain shades.
The mixture makes it possible to increase the aesthetic beauty of the base, emphasize the color depth, which is very important, for example, for parquet surfaces. As a result of application, the surface to be treated will acquire a great visual beauty. But the choice of this or that product should be influenced by personal preferences or the area of use of the surface.
Alkyd varnish products will differ in their specificity and chemical content depending on their use for external or internal work. Alkyd varnish mixtures are widely popular compared to their counterparts. This will be due to the performance properties of the products, which will many times exceed the available indicators of oil-type formulations.
The main and unchanged component of varnish agents is an alkyd-type resin that acts as a base. Among such products, alkyd varnishes will be out of competition in terms of resistance to temperature fluctuations.
Vibration loads will in no way affect the quality of the applied alkyd-type compound. In addition, the lacquer does not have adhesives that many types of paints and varnishes have. The product is able to be absorbed directly into the wood and does not fall into the cracks in the floor of the log house. Such characteristics make it possible to minimize floor creaks when treating the floor surface with an alkyd mixture. The first alkyd-based varnish, which began to be produced in Russia, is the composition PF-231.
Such a product is intended for use on any type of surface. It is also possible to note the visual attractiveness of the resulting base after processing with the composition - the film accurately and evenly covers the working surface.
In addition to the positive characteristics, the composition will have certain disadvantages. The main disadvantage will be the short service life of the coating due to the minimum level of hardness. Due to this, after a couple of years, the surface of the wooden floor will need to be processed again.
On other materials, becoming will serve several times longer. A varnish such as PF-283 helps to create a glossy layer that is remarkable for its decorative properties. In fact, such products are a mixture of alkyd resin, fatty acids and natural solvents. In addition, there are driers among the components. Most often, such a varnish is sold in aerosol cans of 150 ml.
PF-170 will include resins when combined with special additives as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons. The composition can be used on wood, wood-containing materials, ceramic and metal substrates. In addition, substrates that are treated with such primers, enamels and paints can very often cover just such protective and decorative properties. The products are allowed for indoor and outdoor use. The varnish is made according to GOST, it is resistant to detergents and aggressive environmental factors, is able to "breathe" and is very economical in terms of consumption.
The characteristics of alkyd-urethane varnish are such that the product has many advantages:
According to consumer reviews, certain disadvantages can be highlighted:
- Perfect polymerization of the mixture can take a long time, and usually this period is a day .
.. In order to eliminate this disadvantage, many manufacturers began to include hardeners in the composition, which help to reduce the time required for the mixture to dry.
- An incompletely dry base, which is treated with an alkyd varnish, has a specific sharp aroma that is even dangerous to humans. In order to eliminate the risk of vapor poisoning, it is required to let the room air perfectly when the film freezes.
- A large amount of alkyd mixture necessarily begins to wrinkle on the surface of the base, and therefore, when working on the product, follow the instructions.
And now let's consider what types of such varnish are.
Let's select several types of alkyd varnishes.
They are made of two components, a desiccant is used as an additional component. Before applying the mixture, it is required to combine everything into one composition in a ratio that will be indicated by the manufacturer.
After that, you can start staining. Usually, for a high-quality and durable coating, a surface treatment is needed in a couple of layers. An important feature of such formulations is the short shelf life of the finished mixture - the solution can be used for about 8 hours. According to their own characteristics, the compositions will be distinguished by high rates. But the varnish has a sharp aroma, and also a low level of resistance to sun rays.
A Now let's talk about a matte alkyd-urethane varnish, which is very popular due to the peculiarities of the mixture in which alkyds will react with polyurethane. The mixture becomes better due to a special component - toluene diisocyanate, due to which the process of drying the varnish is carried out slightly differently. First of all, the solvent begins to evaporate, and then the mixture solidifies under the influence of oxygen. The drying time of the surface with such a method of drying is reduced, in addition, the indicators of resistance to abrasion, thermal effects and high humidity levels are improved. This pattern will be due to an increase in the operational life of the coating, and this is due to the high demand for the product, as well as its cost.
But due to the fact that 50% of the alkyd-urethane varnish is made from an organic solvent, its toxicity will increase. Such products are not safe in terms of fires, and therefore the use of coatings requires additional safety measures. Moreover, if the coating does not dry out completely, and the base is already in use, there will be inevitable situations in which the varnish begins to deform, forming serious defects. You can only remove them with a grinder.
Glossy and matte
Compositions differ only in what texture the dried base will have after processing.
The matte composition creates a more practical surface, because traces and dirt are not so visible on it, and there are also semi-matte compositions. Gloss should be used in a room with a minimum degree of illumination, because it perfectly reflects light. In terms of the set of components, such products do not differ at all, and it is for this reason that the choice of a mixture will be based only on the taste preferences of consumers.
Even by the name itself, the scope of the product can become clear - the mixture will be produced for covering yachts from wood, but in addition for processing vessels, a similar composition can be used on substrates that are used in conditions of too humid microclimate.But here it is worth paying attention that yacht varnish can only be used for outdoor work.
This is explained by such a limitation by the chemical composition of the material - in order to increase the indicators of resistance to moisture during the production of a varnish composition, its main set of mandatory elements contains toxins, for example, toluene.
For metal surfaces
By its own composition, it will be a mixture of alkyds and polymers. Substances are ways to provide shine to metal substrates, as well as a beautiful appearance. The mixture has incredible indicators of resistance to aggressive chemicals, high levels of humidity, thermal effects on the surface, and moreover, adhesion to different types of material will make it possible to operate the varnish outdoors and indoors. In order to properly carry out work on applying alkyd-type varnish, priming or even filling the surface should be done.
Even before application, the base should be cleaned of dirt and dust, and also degreased.
To obtain a high quality result, it is better to use the manufacturer's products. Alkyd compositions for a parquet surface can be classified as follows:
Based on the type of coating, alkyd varnishes can be divided into such subtypes as semi-matt, glossy, matte and semi-gloss. To give the varnish color, craftsmen sometimes use colors that are chosen taking into account the specific basis on which the composition is made and what type of solvents are used. This option produces a tinted surface.
The main areas of application of alkyd varnish types can be distinguished:
- Processing of end parquet floors.
- "floating floor".
- Heated parquet floor.
- Parquet, for the creation of which very "capricious" wood species were used - their feature will be susceptibility to environmental factors.
- Products for coating metal surfaces.
And now about how the varnish is used.
The level of consumption of alkyd varnish will directly depend on the type of composition used, as well as the professionalism of the master who performs the processing. Manufacturers, as well as professional craftsmen, agree that the composition should be applied in a couple of layers. It is very important to start applying the next coat only after the previous one has perfectly set. Based on this, it will be possible to understand that it will take at least 2 days to complete the work. The average consumption of mixtures is approximately 0.
07 kg per square meter. Certain types of varnishes must be thinned before application.
White spirit can be used as a solvent for varnish, which begins to evaporate as soon as you apply the composition to the surface. After the composition polymerization occurs, which is due to a chemical reaction between the components and resin molecules. To remove the varnish coating from the surface, a remover is applied.
This is a special chemical agent that helps break down the varnish and lift the film off the material. You can wash off the varnish with the help of powder products, paste, and also by scraping or heat treatment. Immediately after application, the varnish will look like glue, and after 10 hours, certain compounds, which have special hardeners in the composition, will begin to harden. It usually takes 24 hours for each layer to dry.
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