In our country, the most widespread are two systems of installation of facades: hinged ventilated and the so-called "wet". The latter are distinguished by a simpler design, but at the same time retain excellent thermal insulation characteristics. The very name "wet" considered the type of facade received from the builders due to the fact that during its construction, various solutions and water-based compositions are used. As an outdoor decoration in wet facades, as a rule, thin-layer plaster is used. The resulting structure copes well with the changeable Russian climate and helps to significantly save on heating in the autumn-winter period.
Remember that you can start any exterior decoration only after the building has shrunk (in the case of a new building). In addition, experts recommend erecting a "wet" facade only after the completion of the installation of the roof, decoration of rooms, installation of doors with windows, as well as all electrical work.
Structural diagram of a "wet" facade
Let's start with the shortcomings. Thermal insulation of building facades according to the technology under consideration requires a serious approach in terms of compliance with the requirements regarding ambient temperature and humidity during the installation period. It is imperative to carry out all work at a temperature of + 5 ° C and above, at a low level of humidity.
Failure to comply with this rule can subsequently lead to rather sad results, such as peeling of the plaster.
It should be noted that the construction of a wet-type facade is possible even at sub-zero temperatures. To do this, the facade itself is first covered with a special plastic wrap, and then they begin to inject an air gap under it with the help of heat guns. The use of film also helps to protect the walls from dust and dirt that can leave a permanent mark on a dried facade. Thus, thanks to this simple technique, favorable working conditions are achieved.
"Wet" facade technology
But, despite all existing limitations, the "wet" type facade systems have many advantages :
This has a beneficial effect on the health of people living in the house, prevents the multiplication of pathogens and the appearance of fungal formations on the walls.
Naturally, any technology in construction is not ideal and has its own characteristics. Since at the beginning of the article we indicated that two facade installation systems are most popular with us, it would not be superfluous to conduct a brief comparative analysis.
| ||Depending on the materials used, it can last up to half a century without the need for repair work.|| Unfavorable atmospheric influences can lead to the gradual destruction of the outer layer of the finish.
Partial repairs may be required after 3-5 years.
However, with the use of material that meets the standards and the observance of technological standards, the "wet" facade will function calmly for 25 years.
||The installation of a curtain wall can be performed all year round.|| Requires special temperature conditions (. + 5 ° C) and low humidity. During cold weather, installation work will be associated with excessive costs of time and money.
||The curtain wall can be easily and relatively quickly cleaned of dirt and dust.||Often, dirt and dust will stick into the outer layer of the plaster, complicating the cleaning process.|
||Due to the ventilation air gap inside the façade, a pressure drop occurs, which facilitates the removal of excess moisture outside. This avoids the greenhouse effect.|| Errors in the selection of finishing materials can lead to a greenhouse effect.
As a result, the plaster layer may begin to collapse.
|Installation of a ventilated facade is quite expensive, but it is less whimsical in operation compared to "wet" ...|| The "wet" type facade is cheap, but requires proper maintenance, periodic cleaning and renewal.
||Used for finishing buildings with medium and large area of facades. As a rule, these are urban buildings: business centers, supermarkets, company offices, administrative buildings.||Perfectly proved itself in the decoration of summer cottages, cottages and other buildings erected outside the city limits.|
The process of finishing the "wet" facade occurs in six main stages. Let's take a closer look at each of them.
At this stage of work it is necessary to assess the base, on top of which all technological layers will then be applied. The unfinished wall should first be cleaned of any dirt present. If a "wet" facade is to be built over an existing exterior finish, check its bearing and adhesive characteristics before starting the installation work. If the facade is covered from the outside with a material that tends to absorb moisture, it must first be well primed. You should also carefully inspect the exterior finish for damaged areas or surface distortions.
If such flaws are found, everything must be corrected by sealing them with a plaster solution. In addition, it is advisable to remove the old plaster from the door slopes, as well as window openings, before the start of construction work.
Priming of the building wall
At this stage, we will need to install the profile strip. Its function is to ensure a more even distribution of the mechanical pressure generated by the thermal insulation boards. In addition, the profile allows you to protect the bottom row of the insulation from moisture.
When fixing the profile frame, it is necessary to adhere to the following recommendations:
3 mm) must be left between the individual profile strips, into which special connection plugs are inserted. They are designed to compensate for possible thermal expansion of materials.
But for heavy mineral wool, the attachment points must be much tighter.
Installation of the basement profile
Thermal insulation of facade structures of the "wet" type, as a rule, are made using foam (expanded polystyrene) or mineral wool slabs. Fixation and fastening of the insulation is carried out with the help of glue, while adhering to the following sequence of actions:
We also apply glue inside the formed perimeter using the dotted method. Upon completion of this step, at least half of the entire area of the insulation slab should be covered with mortar.
Please note: if you use lamella mats for insulation, it is necessary to cover the entire fastening surface with glue.
We firmly press the insulation treated with the solution to the wall, not forgetting to immediately remove any excess adhesive solution during the installation process. We lay the heat-insulating layer using the spreading method (by analogy with brickwork) in rows, that is, place the joint of any two plates of the upper row on the center line of the lower plate.
Scheme of fixing thermal insulation boards
Accordingly, the required length of the dowel will be equal to the sum of the above parameters.
Fixing the insulation with disc dowels
The density of the fasteners per square meter may also vary. Depending on the mass of the insulation boards, the diameter of the dowels themselves and the height of the row, this number will be from 5 to 15 pieces.
Thermal insulation materials
Between the completion of the installation of the thermal insulation and the installation of the reinforcement layer, one to three days should elapse.
On top of the insulation, we apply a special adhesive solution in which we will embed the fiberglass reinforcing net. This type of work should start from the corners of the building and the corner bevels of door and window openings. After installation from above, cover the recessed mesh with another layer of adhesive. The thickness of the interlayer obtained should generally be within six millimeters. The optimum depth of the mesh under the top layer of glue, in turn, is about one and a half millimeters.
Installing the reinforcing mesh
After waiting for the reinforcing to dry completely layer, the period of which can be from three to seven days, we can proceed to the next stage of work. Remember that the application of the final plaster layer requires appropriate conditions, namely:
Naturally, it is possible to achieve their implementation and artificially using heat guns, covering the facade with a special film, but professionals still recommend to carry out the final work in the warm season.
Exterior plaster should be chosen very carefully. The durability of the resulting finish will largely depend on its quality.
Plaster must have a number of important characteristics:
Application of the final finishing layer
Before starting work on the arrangement of the basement, it is necessary to waterproof the adjacent area and the lower part of the walls of the building using a blind area. The sequence of actions itself is similar to the general finishing technology with small additions:
Base / plinth waterproofing
We hope that the flow chart for installation work presented in the article will help you to understand in detail all the nuances of the construction of a "wet" facade and will allow you to perform many of the operations considered on your own.
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