Installation of jumpers and how to use it when building a house from aerated concrete walls and foam blocks? Options + Videos

Installation of jumpers and how to use it when building a house from aerated concrete walls and foam blocks? Options + Videos The key to the durability of any building or structure is a competent approach to reinforcement, which avoids the appearance of cracks and other flaws during operation ...

Reinforced elements are needed to increase the level of strength of a gas silicate structure in the construction of cottages and private small houses.

It is compulsory to install jumpers for aerated concrete blocks during the construction of openings windows or doors.

General information about lintels in construction

The meaning of lintels

Installation of jumpers and how to use it when building a house from aerated concrete walls and foam blocks? Options + Videos Aerated concrete masonry is exposed to serious stress not only at the time of building a house, but also during operation. To distribute the load evenly, reinforcement is installed on the opening using a wall chaser. When the reinforcement is placed in the groove, it is fixed with mortar.

When choosing a material, it is necessary to be guided by the indicators of this material and the length of the span. One of the important points is the weight of the jumpers.

Monolithic reinforced concrete structures heavily load bearing walls, and installation is carried out with the participation of special equipment. And when laying aerated concrete structures, you can handle it yourself.

Lintels in a private building

When a private house is being erected, the technology differs in some points. Today the construction market offers several types of lintels, differing in their design and application rules.

Aerated concrete lintels

A ready-made solution in the form of a reinforced gas silicate / aerated concrete lintel, made in accordance with GOST, which can be bought.

Such elements are conventional beams for aerated concrete with a rectangular section and reinforcement treated with an anti-corrosion mixture and acting as an internal frame. They have arrows indicating the direction of installation. The considered option during construction is recognized as the easiest and does not require special knowledge for installation. However, you will have to pay a lot of money for it.

Among the advantages it should be noted

  • - the absence of cracks in case of correct reinforcement.

    They do not float and do not undergo destruction during prolonged use;

  • - aerated concrete lintels are high-strength structures of light weight, therefore they do not exert a high load on the walls and foundation of the building;
  • - structure - lintels are similar to construction blocks, which is a high indicator of thermal efficiency without the need for additional insulation of the structure.
  • How many blocks are needed depends on the thickness of the block. If the wall is 40 cm, you will need 2 pieces of 15 cm and one of 10. If half a meter, then 2 of 15 cm and 2 of 10 cm.
  • The dimensions of the jumpers are 124 mm in height, 115-175 in width mm, length 1300-3000 mm.

Blocks in the shape of the letter U

U-blocks are today a popular option for the construction of prefabricated bulkheads over windows from walls made of cellular aerated concrete with fixed formwork.The dimensions of such blocks coincide with the dimensions of standard walls, and installation does not require the use of special lifting mechanisms.

Jumpers of the U shape are prefabricated and can be easily cut with a hacksaw on aerated concrete. In products measuring 20 cm in width, there are 12 cm grooves, into which the frame reinforcement is laid and installation is carried out using wooden formwork.

The installation technology is as follows

  • - a rigid platform is prepared, supported by bars or metal pipes in several places;
  • - the blocks are placed on the platform with launching on the walls by 25 cm.

    If these are supports, then they must be solid;

  • - a thicker wall is placed on the outside of the building. Insulation is applied to it. The sides are glued with a special solution for aerated concrete, observing the rules;
  • - a volumetric reinforcing cage is placed in the trays in the form of 4 rods with a diameter of 12-16 mm, fastened together with a wire with a step of 40 cm;
  • - the tray is filled with fine-grained concrete M200;
  • - pouring concrete, it is necessary to achieve uniform distribution of the mixture and complete enveloping of the reinforcement. This can be achieved by laying concrete in layers;
  • - dismantling of the formwork is carried out after 21 days.

U-pieces can be assembled on the ground or indoors on level ground with a stable base.

Alternatively, use plank flooring.

Reinforced concrete elements are made using heavy mixes with concrete and reinforcing rods.

For reference. When there is no home insulation in the plans, it is advisable to insert polystyrene foam or similar insulation.

Reinforced concrete lintels

They look like a concrete beam with reinforcement inside.

The basis is concrete M200, which is cold and must be insulated. When creating formwork, you can face some difficulties.

The advantage of the structure is that it can cover large openings, regardless of the shape of the building.

If the opening is large, then the monolith is made by hand.

If you want to cover a span of 2.

8 m, then divide 280 by 20 and get a height equal to 14 cm.

Reinforcement is carried out with 6 twelve-millimeter rods with a step of half a meter. The support length of the beam should be 35 cm on one side and the other. The supports are filled with a solution of 1.5 cm thick.

For the manufacture of a monolithic lintel, formwork is made of boards or plywood. In this case, the insulation is laid on the inside. Some make the formwork smaller so that the thermal insulation layer can be glued after removing the formwork. You can use extruded polystyrene foam as a material, which has high thermal insulation and durable properties. Such formwork is not removable.

A reinforcement frame is placed inside it and poured with M200 concrete. After 3 weeks, the one-piece lintel will be ready.

Important! Concrete loses to gas silicate in thermal conductivity.

The use of reinforced concrete is possible if the walls of the house are insulated with mineral wool, otherwise such a structure will become a cold bridge.

How is mounting

In the process of mounting jumpers, they rely on design features.

  • Installation of jumpers and how to use it when building a house from aerated concrete walls and foam blocks? Options + Videos Reinforced load-bearing structure made of aerated concrete is used with a maximum opening length of 174 cm, while supporting the masonry 25 cm is required. When laying aerated concrete, it is recommended to use 4 steel corners. It is better if the corners overlap the masonry by 30 cm. Aerated concrete is durable due to the presence of a steel frame. The bulkheads are a single-span beam with a load over the entire surface.

    Plus in the ability not to additionally insulate the structure.

  • Reinforced concrete supporting structure with formwork in the form of U-shaped blocks can be used with an opening length of 300 cm, with the same calculation of the support on the masonry as with aerated concrete. Installation is carried out without the use of special equipment, which is a great advantage. Also does not need insulation.
  • A monolithic reinforced concrete supporting structure is installed depending on the length of the beam, the support is 30 cm.

    With such a structure, an opening up to 3 m wide can be blocked. This is an excellent solution when covering a wide distance. The proportion is respected 1:20. It must be additionally insulated.

Reinforcement is required for an opening length of 1.

20 m.

As for the non-supporting structure, reinforced concrete is used with a beam length of 2 m, support - 0 , 35 m with additional insulation. A metal corner and deepening in the base of the masonry are used.

Window opening

  • The use of U-blocks when working with floors no more than three meters wide allows you to do without the participation of special equipment, for example, a crane.

Reinforcement is made using metal rods with strength A400-500 and diameter 10-16 mm.

In case of tray width less than 120 mm, it is recommended to use two bar reinforcement.

When the width exceeds 150 mm, it is better to take 4 reinforcement bars and connect them with wire in 50 cm increments in order to obtain a strong grid.

The value of the support zone of the outer blocks is 25 cm. To hold the ends together, you can use ordinary aerated concrete glue.

  • Instead of U-shaped trays, formwork can be built from boards or aerated concrete blocks.

    Then reinforce and fill with concrete.

Reinforced lintels

Undoubtedly, the method of creating reinforced lintels inside gives strength and is a good basis for the final stage.

In terms of dimensions, they are guided by the length of the span and the width of the wall blocks.

Installation is carried out, taking into account some points:

  • - the parts are raised to the required height and placed with the arrow upward, observing the condition of the reference depth of 30 cm.In this case, the width should be equal to the width of the block;
  • - you can use 2 jumpers in the opening, but the base of the opening must be monolithic;
  • - all elements must be connected with a special glue solution, and the second part must be tight adjoin the lintel using a mallet.

    It is important that the integrity of the structure is not violated;

  • - the entire surface is leveled with a planer, and you can continue to work after the glue has completely dried.

In this way, the door and window opening is formed. The main thing is that the lintels rest on the walls as reliably as possible, which can be achieved by correct calculations.

"Collective farm" method

When building houses from aerated concrete, installation with corners or reinforcing bars is often found, which professionals do not like very much. However, this option does not lose its popularity.

It is interesting that the use of steel corners is not regulated by GOST and is not indicated in the rules for the construction of aerated concrete buildings.

This design is used on narrow openings up to 1.20 m and in one-story buildings. The corners need to be bought powerful, with a section of 75x75x6 mm. They are installed with a reference depth of 30 cm.

When installing, you must adhere to the rules:

  • - be sure to paint the corners on all sides with an anti-corrosion compound;
  • - the minimum reference length for a metal corner - 20 cm;
  • - the connection of the corners is carried out using steel tape, welding, screed;
  • - the corners should be recessed into concrete to prevent bulging above the wall surface.

When plastering an aerated concrete building, metal lintels should be wrapped with a special plaster mesh.

Nuances

  1. When the length of the opening is more than 120 cm and the height is less than 2/3 of the width, it is better to use jumpers from ordinary blocks with additional fasteners ...

    In this case, the blocks are laid using temporary formwork and glue. Side structures should be buried in the wall.

  2. To reinforce the wall, it is recommended to reinforce the rows above the opening. The normal value of the reinforcement section is 8 mm. The end of it must be wound 50 cm beyond the border of the opening on both sides, giving them the shape of the letter G.

    Then they are anchored into aerated concrete masonry.

Conclusion

Monolithic reinforced concrete structures are very heavy, therefore, when decorating window or door openings, it is advisable to choose aerated concrete products that can be installed easily. They are practical and have good thermal insulation, they securely hold the masonry above the opening.

Important points in construction when creating lintels are height and width. With the correct calculation and installation, the structure gains reliability.

But, if the distance for the overlap is very large, then the way out is to use monolithic reinforced concrete beams.

( 2 marks, average 2.5 of 5 )

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