How to make a staircase in a cottage and what you need to consider when making
If there is more than one floor in the project of a country house, then you will definitely need a staircase, which will become the key point.
With the right approach, the parameters of the stairs, design and material of manufacture will be determined during the development stage. But you can decide on the final version later if you use a ready-made staircase design. Construction companies make a variety of staircases for cottages, both typical and exclusive, that will appeal to even the most demanding people.
We propose to deal with the installation of stairs in the cottage, find out what they are, as well as what methods of arrangement are.
General important information
Criteria for selecting a ladder
A ladder is a part of everyday life, it is familiar and understandable a structure that cannot be perceived as an engineering structure and is appreciated by most people only from the point of view of beauty. At the same time, when choosing, one should take into account not only stylistic qualities, but also technical characteristics,
the following factors should serve as criteria:
Location. This will play a special role - whether you have a typical structure in a side corridor, a secondary structure near the back entrance, or a grand staircase in the living room / hall. The location will directly affect the appearance, selection of materials, and therefore the cost of the stairs.
The size will depend on the area allocated by the project. Size will play a special role in small-sized houses, where every square meter is valuable. Even structures of modest size occupy at least 4-5 square meters (and in addition the same amount of space will be occupied by a free zone in front of it) on all floors. Sometimes it turns out that the stairs occupy 15-20 squares at all, which sometimes amounts to 10 to 15% of the entire area.
Extraordinary design developments are ways to have a custom look and even make an unforgettable impression. Unfortunately, they are not always practical enough, and some may even be unsafe. If there are grandparents in the house, as well as children of any age, then you should think about their health and physical capabilities.
- Reliability and convenience. The stairs in the cottage to the second floor must be commensurate with the proportions of a person, as well as convenient for climbing and descending.
Parts and their connections must be able to withstand the design load.
- Interior style of the room. It is the interior features that will affect the appearance and selection of materials.
- Home parameters. For certain structures, it is important to consider the wall material and the thickness of the metal to which the staircase will be attached.
Now a little about the types of stairs.
The following types of staircase structures are used in country houses:
- Marching. The most convenient, simple and convenient, and therefore the most popular staircase designs that fit perfectly into every interior. Their main disadvantage is size. Such stairs take up a lot of space, but sometimes it turns out to be bypassed if you design a swing-flight staircase (with an intermediate type platform).
- On the bolts. The steps are attached to the surface of the wall, which is the supporting element (and for this reason must be concrete). The staircase on the bolts looks very elegant.
- Spinal (modular). Here the steps rest on a frame, which consists of the same module-elements, which significantly simplifies installation.
The supporting frame of the staircase is stringer when the frame is an axial-type support for the steps, and the ends hang in the air. Another option would be bowstring beams, when the steps are attached to the grooves and their ends are invisible.
- Screw. A practical option in the case where the usable space is limited. The screw structure can decorate any interior, but it is not very convenient to move along it.
These are the main types of stairs.
Material and styles
Modern staircases in the cottage to the second floor are made of a wide variety of building materials.
The most common options are:
Wooden. Solid wood structures are assembled from solid wood or glued sawn timber, and most often maple, pine, beech and ash are used. There are also stairs made of teak, walnut or oak, and exotic (and expensive) species such as mahogany and ebony are used for decoration.
- Metallic. Structures made of metal (or on a metal frame) are durable and reliable. They look spectacular and are appropriate for almost every interior. The disadvantage of such structures is their heavy weight (which requires a reliable foundation), the complexity of creation (especially if there are forging elements available) and cost. Very often, combined types of stairs are installed - a metal frame (made of stainless steel, ordinary or galvanized steel), and wooden, stone or glass steps (made of natural or artificial stone).
A type of construction is when a metal frame is sheathed with wood (maybe partially or completely).
- Combined. The combination of various materials allows designers to create exclusive models of the combined type, are reliable in use and can be used for decades. Not only wood, stone, metal is used, but also plastic and tempered glass are often used. The cladding is done with tiles, natural stone, porcelain stoneware, covered with laminate, linoleum and even carpet (if you have small children in your house).
- Concrete base.A very solid construction with a metal frame that is not afraid of any loads at all. Stone steps are sheathed with wood and equipped with railings. The concrete structure is characterized by its resistance to wear and tear and 100% absence of squeaks, which always appear on the wooden frame.
To calculate the approximate price for different types of stairs, it is worth using online calculators.
To fit into the interior of the house, the staircase must be made in an approximate style solution. Most often, the following style directions are selected for staircase structures:
- Classic. Harmony, and therefore designs of various directions (from empire style and classics, to classicism and baroque) are always in demand. The style is ideal for spacious rooms with high ceilings and lots of light. Such stairs will be characterized by the severity of the shape of the steps, classical balustrade and symmetry.
The decoration uses marble inserts, carving, stucco molding, colors are usually pastel and light.
- Vintage. Paint and forging elements are welcome here. Modern models are made of solid oak with hand-carved elements or from a combination of materials with cast iron details, and all of them are artificially aged.
A feature of such models will be manufacturability, a lot of metal and simple geometric shapes. The supporting structure and connecting parts for fastening are not hidden, but, on the contrary, are exposed outside in every way. Decorative details are completely absent, and their role can be adequately handled by spot lighting, which allows you to emphasize texture and shine.
- Provence. The stairs (usually wooden) are painted in white or pastel shades.
If the stairs are not painted, then they are aged to add a scuff effect. Provence style stairs have large steps and comfortable railings.
- Loft. If hi-tech is a look into the future, then a loft is a memory of the industrial past. A loft-style staircase can be either completely made of metal or with steps made of wood.
It is distinguished by a general worn appearance, the use of ferrous metal, smooth straight handrails and a dark color of the steps.
Make the staircase in the cottage under the interior of the house, so that everything is harmonious.
What should you pay attention to?
The staircase has the following details:
- Bearing elements (stringer or bowstring), which differ in the way of fastening the steps.
- Risers and steps.
- Handrails or railings (not available in all structures).
- Additional elements (in special versions) - props, marching structures and landings.
To make the staircase between floors not only beautiful, but more practical, and when designing it, several indicators will be laid, the size of which should be carefully verified.
The staircase project is described by the following parameters:
- Size - if the area allows, the optimal choice would be a two-flight structure, as the most convenient and safe.
- Tilt angle - the height of the second floor in a private house usually makes it possible to install a staircase on a couple of flights with a convenient angle of 35-40 degrees.
- Width - according to the norms of SNiP, an optimal width is provided as that which makes it possible for two people to disperse.
The project will lay the width from 90 to 150 cm.
- Step parameters. In a private house, the recommended height is 15 cm, and the depth is 30 cm. This size will be the most convenient for each family member. It is important to understand that the length, height of the steps and the angle of inclination are interrelated parameters.
The steeper the staircase in the cottage is designed, the higher the height of the steps will be, and then it will be more convenient to climb to the second floor.
And now a little about lighting.
Staircase lighting will be an important part of the design and further operation, and especially if the structure will have a large ascent angle, and there are no railings ...
Lighting can be done in two ways:
- If the structure is in an area of constant artificial or natural lighting (there is a window opening nearby, and the room is bright), and you can also limit the lighting for steps (of course, additional lighting for no one forbids decorative purposes). Such lighting will make it possible to freely use the stairs at night.
- A staircase that is not used regularly will be better lit from time to time. So that you don't have to grope for a switch every time in the dark, and practical owners install automatic backlights that respond to movement. Such a system provides many possibilities - you can adjust the connection speed.
There is also the possibility of gradual connection (steps will be by steps).
The following methods are used to illuminate a modern staircase in a cottage:
- Lamps - you can use both wall (sconces with a directed luminous flux) and point luminaires that will be built along the contour directly into or above the steps. If the staircase is open (without risers), and the lamps can also be built under the march. The designer lamp that stands above the stairs looks unusual.
- LED lamps and spotlights.
Recessed LED lamps with low power will be the most common solution for lighting and decorating stairs in a private cottage. Such devices can adjust the shade of light and intensity, and they are also economical, do not heat up even when used 24/7 and create a cozy atmosphere.
- LED strips. The most original light effects are obtained with a flexible LED strip. It will be convenient for her to emphasize the contour of the stairs, and also place it along the steps or railings.
Also, the LED tape is characterized by low energy consumption and complete safety, because it is not capable of heating up the surrounding area very much (even with constant switching on). The disadvantage will be the high cost of the tape and the need to connect other elements to the chain.
The planning, design and installation of stairs to the second floor should be trusted by a profiled company with experience in creating similar products. Experts will select the best project and help you choose the right structures.