Currently, the question of the use of alternative energy for heating the home is increasingly being asked. Let's see if it is possible to do without classical heating and hot water supply schemes using solar energy collectors.
A collector is a device for collecting solar energy and converting it into thermal energy.
Collectors are vacuum and flat , combined with a battery tank and separate so-called split systems when the accumulator tank is installed separately (for example, in the attic).
The vacuum solar collector consists of vacuum tubes .
The outer part of the tube is transparent, and the inner part is coated (highly selective) to capture solar energy. A vacuum is pumped into the distance between the tubes. Heat pipes filled with liquid and combined into a common circuit are used as a heat conductor. Also, a circulation pump and a battery tank are included in the circuit. The tank is a container filled with liquid in which the heat exchanger is located.
The collector absorbs solar energy through vacuum tubes and transfers it to the accumulator tank through forced circulation of the liquid. All processes are controlled by the controller, when the temperature in the collector reaches a certain value, the circulation pump is automatically started.
When using a solar heating system as a heating system, it is recommended to install a storage tank , indoors this makes it possible to use the system as an additional source of heating and DHW. If there is a lack of solar energy or a large consumption of hot water, the system will automatically turn on the main heating source. Non-freezing liquids based on propylene glycol or mineral oil are used as the heat carrier.
During the summer period there is a danger of liquid boiling and to ensure safety, the systems are equipped with overheating protection and a safety valve and an expansion tank are installed.
Solar collectors are used for heating industrial and domestic premises, for hot water supply in production and domestic needs.
These units have a simple design. The base is fixed to the metal frame. Thermal insulation is laid on the base, and the walls of the case are also insulated.
Then a material is laid that absorbs solar radiation well, converting it into heat (absorber). This layer is dark in color. From above, pipes are fixed through which the liquid flows. All this is covered with tempered glass.
Sunlight passes through the glass and enters on the absorbing layer, which heats up, converting solar energy into thermal energy.
This heat is transferred to the fluid circulating through the tubes.
What you need to know when choosing vacuum collectors:
Object location (region). Based on this, the average amount of solar radiation per square meter is determined throughout the year by months. Based on these data, the number of collectors is determined. The volume of the storage tank is calculated based on the number of residents.
For a family of 3 people, it is recommended to use about 300-400 liters based on 100 liters per person with a power reserve.
Minimum solar radiation in January. In February, it will grow 2.5 times more in relation to January, and in March, it will double more in relation to February. It can be seen from this that the received heat becomes 5 times more from January to March.
It follows from this that it is not worth choosing equipment based on the needs of the winter months. In this case, there will be a problem of excess energy on sunnier days.
Equipment should be chosen so as to compensate for about 30% of heating costs for the entire winter period.
In view of everything presented above, we conclude that the heating temperature depends entirely on the activity of the Sun.
In the southern regions, it is possible to fully provide housing and hot water supply even in winter. In the regions of the Northern and Siberian regions, in the winter period, it is only possible to compensate for about 30% of the cost of heat and hot water supply.
Currently, various manufacturers produce various heating systems and when choosing one or another brand it is necessary to be guided by various parameters, since the calculation of these systems is difficult to better provide design to professionals.
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