You are about to build a house and are puzzled as to which foundation you should choose foundation ?
First you need to determine the type of soil on the site, then make all the calculations and develop a development plan. It is important to familiarize yourself with the price of materials and everything else according to the scheme.
And we will introduce you to the popular types of reinforced concrete foundations, and these are:
We will analyze all the cons, pros, technologies of arrangement and much more.
Reinforced concrete foundations are strong, reliable.
It is applicable in various types of construction and is suitable for the construction of private buildings, houses with many floors, warehouses and industrial premises.
The demand for a reinforced concrete foundation is due to the fact that it has a long service life, due to this you save money.
The concrete foundation is resistant to temporary and external factors, it is suitable for all types of soil in Russia.
Reinforced concrete strip foundation is considered common for building construction with a small number of floors.
A large number of houses, dachas, cottages in Russia have been built on such a foundation.
A strip foundation is a prefabricated or monolithic strip that follows the contour of the house.
Classification of strip foundations :
The second option is considered easier to manufacture. It will take less time to set it up. But monolithic tape bases are more durable.
Deeply laid foundation - the support sole is located below the freezing level of the ground.
Shallow foundation - deepening of this foundation goes by 30 - 80 see
External foundation - no deepening, the foundation is supported on the soil surface.
Strip foundations are erected for the construction of buildings on sandy loam and sandy soils. Buildings with a height of 1 to 3 floors are built on these foundations, while different building materials are used to erect the building. For the construction of a brick building with a heavy load on the base, a base from reinforced concrete piles is used.
Attention! Foundations that are on the surface or that are not deeply embedded are erected on land plots with non-heaving soil.
Slab foundations are made in places with problem soil, where there is a tendency to horizontal shifts, where heaving and low-density soil. This type of foundation is highly resistant, evenly distributing the loads over the ground.
The base slab can be from thirty to one hundred cm thick. The slab may not be laid deep, in this case it is poured in half so that part of the slab is above the soil surface or it should be buried.
For the device of deepened slab foundations, they dig a pit, below the freezing of the soil, slabs are laid at the bottom of the pit. Then the basement is rebuilt, and it will serve as a basement.
Attention! The practice of constructing foundations with monolithic slabs is widespread, but the foundations are also equipped with ready-made reinforced concrete slabs. Such bases have a thickness of 30 - 40 cm, they are used for the construction of frame houses.
A monolithic foundation slab is suitable as a base for weighty houses made of foam concrete, bricks, the height of which is from 1 to 3 floors.
The disadvantage of this foundation is the high price. It is most profitable to arrange a pile foundation of concrete products, it will be more profitable in terms of price and better in terms of bearing characteristics.
Pile foundations have good soil stability and bearing capacity.
Foundations on RC piles are divided into two categories:
Bored piles are made inside the soil, by filling the wells with concrete.
The pile foundation also consists of a grillage - this is a strip structure that outlines the contour of the foundation and holds the piles together.
The grillage is needed to give the piles, which stand separately, stability and to evenly distribute the mass of the structure. On bored piles, the grillage can be made of timber, rolled metal, channel bars, or from monolithic concrete.
Reinforced concrete monolithic grillages are used for brick or foam concrete houses on bored supports.
Attention! Foundations on piles are installed using special equipment.
These machines drive the piles into the soil using hammer driving technology or vibration action.
Let's analyze the main nuances of the construction of reinforced concrete foundations.
Before starting the construction of a strip foundation, a site must be prepared.
For this, stones and all vegetation are removed from the site and sod is removed to a depth of 15-20 cm, this is in about one spade bayonet.
The next step will be to break down the axes of the foundation using walk-up boards and twine (the outer and inner contours of the tape are marked on the site), then they make a vertical leveling of the soil (they dig a trench with a depth on which you will arrange the foundation).
Continuation of the work consists in making a compacting cushion of sand and gravel at the bottom of the trench.
The pillow is well leveled and compacted. It is needed to protect the foundation from soil heaving.
Next, we form the formwork from the boards, it should be located on the surface of the earth so that its height and trench depth are equal to the design height of the foundation tape. Inside, the walls of the formwork are covered with a film, it will not allow moisture to leak out of the concrete.
We form a frame from the reinforcement; for this purpose, corrugated rods with a diameter of 12 to 16 mm are taken, as well as smooth reinforcement rods from 7 to 9 mm. A frame made of rods is connected by welding or connected with a wire. The formwork is poured with concrete, after which it is compacted by vibration or pierced with reinforcement to remove the air inside the mixture.
Attention! The foundation is then considered complete when the concrete has reached 100% strength. This happens after 28-30 days.
To the site where it will be, construction is in progress, the contours of the foundation are transferred. Then the pit is dug with special equipment or manually (in the case of a shallow slab), at the bottom of the pit, a sprinkling of sand and gravel is formed.
The next stage will be the formation of the formwork, the inner walls are covered with foil. A 3-5 cm foundation is poured onto the surface of the bedding, liquid concrete is used for it. On the surface of the concrete, a frame is made of reinforcement.
The slab is poured with concrete and leveled.
Attention! The formwork is removed two weeks after the slab is poured.
The most reliable foundation is considered to be a pile foundation , heavy special equipment is used to create it. The technique is used on a wheeled or tracked base, it plunges the driven concrete piles into the soil.
Before starting work, they arrange the entrance and the movement of special equipment on the construction site.
If necessary, then dig a pit.
Piles are delivered and stored at the building site. Draw the contours of the foundation and the points of driving in piles for the project. Then the piles are driven in. The installation pulls up the pile, lifts and sets it in a vertical position, then plunges it.
After all the piles are submerged, they are cut at the zero level and tied with a grillage. According to the area of the foundation, formwork is made for the grillage and the reinforcement cage is laid. The reinforcement is welded to the protruding reinforcement of the piles and the formwork is poured with concrete.
Foundations from RC piles. If we compare this type of foundation, then the tape and slab lose.
So, what are the advantages of a pile foundation?
It is also worth highlighting that pile foundations are economically justified; in the case of erection of a structure on problem soil , such a foundation will cost less than installing a monolithic slab.
So, we told you the positive and negative qualities of the foundations, the choice is yours.
And we wish you good luck in your endeavors!
( 2 marks, average 4.5 out of 5 )
Posted By: Work Style |02, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |06, Nov 2020