The construction of frame structures has become extremely popular for a long time. There is nothing surprising in this. This method of construction is very attractive because of its simple technology, which allows you to carry out all the work on your own, without resorting to the help of hired workers. And materials for construction are required not too expensive and quite affordable.
The perimeter of the frame itself is trimmed with chipboard sheets, clapboard, plywood and others. All free spaces and gaps are filled with any available filler, which is also a heater. Typically, this role is played by foam, polyurethane foam, stone and mineral wool and other materials.
Use of sufficiently compact blocks and wooden columns from a bar allows construction to be carried out without the involvement of special equipment - winches and cranes.
The complete absence of concrete slabs, bricks and stone blocks in the structure being erected ensures low weight of the entire structure.
And this eliminates the need to equip a solid monolithic foundation with your own hands.
However, when determining the type of foundation, one should proceed not only from the mass of the building.
The type of soil on which the building is planned to be erected must also be taken into account. If it is clayey, rather heavy, then it is unlikely that it will be possible to do without a solid, monolithic foundation. If the soil has a normal sand content, then a columnar or strip shallow foundation will be enough.
If the landlord has doubts about the quality of the soil for construction on his site, then he can check its type and composition with the local architectural office. Do not neglect the foundation without first making sure that you can actually do without it. The proposed construction will use natural wood-based material. Even fully processed, quality material, it is best to avoid prolonged contact with water.
There are two schemes for the construction of a frame house:
Ready-made blocks are not used: only the initial building materials;
Construction begins with a diagram of a frame house, or its project (plan). When compiling it, it is necessary to take into account all the features of the future structure, on which the required amount of building material also depends. Some believe that this stage can be dispensed with, and it is completely in vain.
Nobody guarantees that later you will not have to interrupt work due to lack of some materials, or their inadequacy.
You can use a suitable ready-made project that is not difficult to find on the net.
Well, if you need an individual house "for yourself", with specific ideas and ideas, then it is better to turn to a professional. After all, the finished sketch must have floor plans, a detailed foundation diagram, drawings of floors and roofs.
The beginning of any construction is preceded by the laying of the base of the building, or foundation.
It has already been noted above that its type depends on the characteristics of the soil in the place chosen for construction.
If the soil is not too prone to creeping, it is quite possible to use a strip, screw or columnar foundation. The screw is good because it can be used on almost any type of soil.
The advantages of this type of foundation also lie in the fact that, if necessary, it is easy to restore or repair it. Great ventilation underneath the entire structure is an added bonus. To exclude the ingress of moisture from the outside, between the base of the house and the foundation piles, it is necessary to waterproof, lay two layers of roofing material.
Important. From the completion of the foundation laying, at least a month (not less) must pass before construction begins. This time is required for shrinkage. It will also have to be used to good use for the business: to carry out all the necessary preparatory measures before starting a large construction project.
To build a reliable and sound structure, you will need:
The length of the beams is determined by the size of the future house. Their thickness will correspond to the thickness of the bearing walls;
After the laid foundation has stood the due date, they begin to fasten the lower upholstery from above. On the foundation, the boards laid out on it are fixed with anchor bolts. It is desirable that the number of joints is minimal.
When the lower strapping is made and the foundation is laid out, you can start installing the frame.
It can be made of metal or wood.
The metal version is stronger - it is much more reliable, but, accordingly, more expensive. To assemble this, you need welding.Another way is with steel fasteners in the form of brackets.
If it is a tree, then the parts must be thoroughly treated with a suitable antiseptic. The fasteners will not be bolts and brackets made of iron, but wooden pins.
The frame does not have to be assembled directly on the foundation. You can do this separately, and then put the finished structure in place and securely fix it.
Correct assembly of the frame is carried out from its corners. They are marked with a strong pairwise connection of flat boards. After that, they make outlines for the future location of the openings for windows and doors.
Too frequent upright stands are not required. The distance of the posts from each other is determined by the width of the prepared insulation material.
By the way, the insulation will not protect the vertical posts, in these places the cold will be able to penetrate inside. For stability, vertical posts or beams are reinforced with special braces. When all the racks are installed and well aligned, proceed to laying out the crown of the ceiling.
Then the window and door openings are laid. Boards are fixed with dowels or self-tapping screws.
When all vertical and horizontal rails are set and secured well, you can start making the battens.
It can be oblique or horizontal. If you can choose between them, then the first option is preferable.
With horizontal sheathing, the boards should go every forty centimeters, at least.
The oblique is allowed at an angle of 45 degrees, the gaps between the individual strips are no more than 40 cm.
Both in the first and second cases, the crate is fixed with self-tapping screws.
Perhaps the most it will be important to avoid sagging boards when installing floors.
Beams should be laid one after another, in parallel, well fixing them with studs.
The distance between them should be no more than 0.6 meters.
For the floors of the first floor, it is necessary to install additional props for reliability.
If we are talking about the ceilings of the second (and third) floor, then the internal walls will quite cope with the role of a reliable support for roofs and ceilings.
If the overlap erected at the previous stage was intended under the roof, then the ends of the laid logs will become the support for the rafters.
The material for the roof is selected according to the preferences and capabilities of the building owner. It can be soft tiles, roofing felt, ondulin, metal tiles and much more. Like other installation work, the installation of the frame also starts from the corners.
The ends of the roof frame are securely attached to the floor joists. The roof is usually in the shape of an isosceles triangle.
The distance between the rafters is related to the width of the material that is supposed to be used as insulation or cover.
It is convenient to assemble the roof frame on the ground surface, and then lift it and install it on the house.
Cladding options vary. These are siding, block house, wall paneling and more. A durable, waterproof material is laid under the sheathing with an overlap, with a margin of 20-30 cm.
The walls are upholstered with the selected material, then the roof, windows and doors are inserted. Floors are installed last. The boards are hemmed under the laid logs, all the gaps formed between the boards and logs are filled with insulation.
If there is such a possibility, then it is better to make the floor insulation two-layer.
First, a layer of foam, followed by mineral wool.
When all the insulation is laid out, the floorboards are laid. They are placed perpendicular to the lags. For greater evenness and smoothness of the floor, you can finish it on top with OSB boards or plywood sheets. When the floor is laid, you can start interior wall decoration. All existing gaps between horizontal and vertical logs should be filled with insulation.
A special vapor barrier film is applied from above. Then sheathing is carried out with plywood or clapboard.
In order for the walls to be more stable, it will be necessary to install internal braces for both the intermediate walls and the external ones.
To frame the house corresponded to the declared characteristics, care should be taken to properly assemble the existing attachment points. This is a rather complex process, therefore, before starting work, you should carefully study the technology.
Those who are not too versed in construction work may not immediately understand what kind of nodes they are.
These are important connection points for the individual structural elements of a building. The most critical among them are floors, walls and roofing systems. Each of the designated main nodes in its own design also has a certain number of node connections.
Let's list them in order, in the direction from the bottom of the structure upwards:
Connections of the main elements of the roof to each other:
All designated nodes are load-bearing, so how they are responsible for the reliability and strength of the entire structure. Secondary nodes should also not be overlooked, they are equally important for the stability of the structure. These are interfloor floors and logs. Special fasteners are used as a proven connection of individual building elements.
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Posted By: Work Style |12, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |03, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |03, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |12, Nov 2020