Do you want to get cozy and warm accommodation, the temperature in which does not depend on the vagaries of the weather? Then you should insulate the walls from the outside with foam. Not sure where to start and how to get started? In this case, study this article - it will give you answers to your questions.
Insulation of walls outside with foam plastic
For Let's start with the material that will be discussed in the article. Polyfoam is a polymer insulation produced in the form of white plates. The material has a pronounced granular structure, and each individual grain contains many voids filled with gas.
It is their presence that gives the foam excellent thermal insulation qualities. You can find out about other material properties from the table.
Table. Polyfoam - the main characteristics.
|Density|| From 15 to 40 kg / m3, depending on the grade of material |
|Thermal conductivity|| From 0. |
038 to 0.042 W / m * K
|Water absorption coefficient|| 0.02 |
|Water vapor permeability coefficient|| 0.05 |
|Range of permissible temperatures|| From -50 ° С to + 75 ° С
|Average service life|| 60 years |
Important! When buying polystyrene, pay attention to the fact that it has flame retardant additives, and the pores in the grains contain incombustible carbon dioxide.
Insulation of the facade with foam plastic
The advantages of foam include:
As for the shortcomings of foam, there are two of them. The first is the flammability of the material. The second is low vapor permeability, which, in the event of a design or installation error, can lead to mold on the main wall.
Polyfoam as insulation
The main task performed by insulation is to shift the dew point outward. Consider three options for buildings.
Heat loss is significantly reduced, but dampness remains. There is also a risk of mold between the insulation and the wall.
Dew point location
Thermal insulation of external walls with foam .
.. All components of the system are highlighted and signed
Construction work related to the insulation of the facade of the house with foam plastic begins with the preparation of the walls. They must be cleaned, leveled, primed, etc. All these steps are described in more detail in the step-by-step instructions below.
Step 1. For work above human height, construct a scaffold. You can make them yourself from the beams and boards available on the site, but it is safer to use factory-made products.
Assembling factory scaffolding
Distance from walls before the scaffolding should be equal to the thickness of the insulation layer (in this case it is 20 cm) plus another 30-40 cm for the working space
, be sure to check the correct position vertically and horizontally using the level
Step 2. Inspect the walls for various defects.
Seal cracks and holes, cut off the build-up of mortar. Prepare holes for water and gas pipelines and other utilities.
Removing mortar build-up
Step 3. Prime with deep wall penetration. Since the house in the example is composed of aerated concrete blocks, two layers will be required.
For the first time, the primer must be diluted by adding water from a third to half of the total volume.
First, the primer must be diluted with water
Wall treatment with deep penetration primer
Important! Priming in two layers is necessary not only for aerated concrete, but also for other porous materials such as foam blocks and sand-lime bricks.
Step 4. Apply a second coat of primer, but not diluted with water.
Applying the second layer of primer
After completing the preparation, proceed with the installation of expanded polystyrene boards.
In this case, their mounting on the wall will be combined - both glue and dowels with "umbrellas" are used.
The process itself will include:
For all processes from this list, separate step-by-step instructions have been compiled, which can be found in the subsections of the article presented below.
Thermal insulation of walls outside with foam - step by step instructions
Let's start insulating the house outside with foam. Let's start with a relatively simple one - installing the first row of expanded polystyrene plates and laying them on ordinary walls.
Step 1. Measure how flat the walls of the house that you are insulating are, identify the presence of differences in thickness. To do this, use either a tensioned thread or a laser level.
The evenness of the walls is checked
Step 2. Set a mark at the bottom of the wall and draw a line from it , on which the first row of polystyrene foam boards will be laid.
The mark is set at the bottom
A line is drawn along which the first will be laid row
Important! In this case, when insulating the walls from the outside, the foam is laid directly on the foundation - it is even enough for this. In other situations, install a special aluminum support profile before installing the expanded polystyrene boards.
Step 3. Mix the glue for installing the polystyrene foam insulation. To do this, dilute the dry mixture in water.
Select proportions based on the instructions printed on the glue package. Stir the solution using a mixer or drill with a suitable attachment, working at low speeds.
Water is poured first
Then dry mix is added
Step 4. Prepare EPS boards for the first row of insulation. In this case, a cutout is created in each of them, as in the diagram below.
Cut the polystyrene foam boards using a special table with a hot nichrome thread. In the absence of such equipment, use a hacksaw with a fine tooth.
The block from the first row of foam insulation is marked with a red arrow
Cutting foam hot nichrome thread
Step 5. Apply the adhesive solution to the first block. To begin with, make a thin strip around the perimeter, pressing the trowel into the expanded polystyrene.
Then add more mortar, bringing the layer thickness to 25-30 mm. In the center of the block, apply several glue points, their number depends on the area of the insulation element.
How to apply the adhesive
Apply the first thin layer of adhesive around the perimeter block
Applying a second layer, more voluminous. In the process of working with it, be careful - the glue should not get on the ends of the foam block
Glue points in the center of the block are indicated by arrows
Step 6. Carry out a test installation of the expanded polystyrene block.
The purpose of the event is to find out what proportion of the total area is occupied by glue. To do this, lean the block against the wall and then set it back. Depending on the thickness of the insulation layer, the adhesive contact area should be 40-60% of the total.
Test laying of insulation
Step 7. Prepare marks on paper or directly on the wall, according to which blocks of expanded polystyrene will be exhibited.
Lay the slabs according to the same principle as brickwork - the top row is shifted to the side relative to the bottom so that the vertical joints do not coincide. The permissible distance is from 15 cm, otherwise the seams will become "cold bridges". You can familiarize yourself with the layout of the foam blocks in the images below.
Layout of foam blocks
Same, but distances are indicated
Step 8. Proceed with the installation of the first block - apply the adhesive on it as shown earlier, lean against the marked place and lean back.
Then align the position of the product. A thread stretched along the upper edge of the first row of blocks and a regular building level will help you with this.
Laying the first block
Aligning the first block
Important! Use small pieces of Styrofoam to support the first row of blocks.
A piece of foam as a lining
Step 9. Same principle as and in the previous step, lay the second, third and subsequent blocks of the first row.
Laying the subsequent blocks of the first row
Step 10. Then lay the remaining rows of foam insulation. You can read how to do this on corners and openings in the following subsections of the article. Dock the blocks tightly to each other, fill the gaps with expanded polystyrene glue, polyurethane foam or thin pieces of material.
Filling the gaps
After the glue or polyurethane foam has dried, with which you filled the joints between blocks, cut off the excess with a construction knife.
Removing excess glue
Step 12. Use the rule to determine how even the layer of insulation is. Grind the protruding areas with a special float.
Grinding of the protruding areas
Installation of insulation on the corners occurs according to the following scheme - from one of the sides, the block extends beyond the boundary of the wall at a distance equal to the thickness of the block installed on the second side.
On the next row, the order of arrangement of foam insulation elements changes to the strictly opposite. By a similar principle, the blocks are installed on the inner corners. For a better idea, check out the images below.
Location of the block on one side of the corner with going beyond the boundary of the wall
Installing the block on the other side end-to-end with what extends beyond the wall. The surplus is cut with a saw
First block of the second row
Installation of foam blocks on the second row of the corner - sides change
Diagram for applying glue to the corner block.
The part that goes beyond the boundary of the wall must remain clean - mortar cannot be applied to it
Layout of expanded polystyrene plates on the inner corners
Now let's look at how the foam blocks are actually installed on the corners of the building.
Step 1. Mark out one of the foam blocks. Select the part that will go beyond the edge of the wall at the corner and the part that will be glued to the surface.
Insulation plate marking
Another photo of the process
Apply the previously mixed mortar to the part of the block that is glued to the wall at the corner. Perform this operation carefully - the glue should not get on another part of the product, which you previously separated using the markings.
Applying the mortar to the part of the block that is glued to the wall at the corner
Step 3. Lean the block against the wall so that the glue adheres to the surface. Align horizontally and vertically, making sure to use a building level.
The block is applied to the wall
Step 4. Measure which block length you need for installation on another part of the corner. Cut off any excess with a fine-toothed hacksaw.
Drawing cutting line
Trimming a block
Step 5. Apply glue to the back of the Styrofoam and install the unit on the other side of the corner.
Dock it tightly with the item you installed a few operations ago.
Step 6. Cut off the protruding part of the first block using a hacksaw. At the end, you should end up with a right angle without any defects. If there is a gap between the blocks, then cover it with special foam glue or polyurethane foam.
Following the same principle as described in this manual, work with the rest of the outer and inner corners of the building.
The protruding part is cut off
To begin with, let's consider by what principle the walls near the doorway are insulated. Here, the main task for you will be to ensure sufficient space for opening and closing. There are two options for installing the frame and door.
In this case, you need special fasteners for it and support in the form of channels. You can see the schemes of their installation in the image below.
Installing the door on the same level with the outer side of the insulation layer, top view
On the sides of the door frame, you can see fasteners
Since the door, when fastened at the same level with the insulation, protrudes strongly forward, then in it is not a basement that acts as a support for it, but two well-fixed channels
Installing the door flush with the main wall. The process of mounting the frame and the canvas itself occurs as usual, but the insulation in the opening must be filed. Otherwise, when opening, the door will constantly rub against it, scratch and spoil the insulation itself
Imagine the process of laying the insulation near the doorway in the form of step-by-step instructions. In this case, an option is considered with the installation of the frame and the door itself at the level with the main wall.
Pick up the required number of blocks and file them off the edge with a fine-toothed hacksaw.
The edge of the block is sawed
Step 2. Install the frame in the doorway if it has not been done earlier.
Step 3. Degrease the surface of the door frame.
Degreasing the surface of the door frame
Step 4. Prepare the required number of profiles for thermal insulation of openings. Unpack them, measure and cut. In this case, the edges of the profile, adjacent to the corners of the openings, must be cut at an angle of 45 °.
Preparation of profiles for thermal insulation of openings
Cutting the profile
Remove the protective tape from the adhesive layer of the profile and fix it on one side opening. Make sure the profile fits snugly against the surface.
Fixing the profile
Step 6. Glue the profiles on the other sides of the opening using the same principle. In the corners, join them tightly to each other with cuts made at an angle of 45 ° in one of the previous stages of work.
Installing profiles on the other sides of the opening
Step 7. Prepare the strips of glass mesh. Their width should be equal to the thickness of the insulation layer plus 10 cm for fixing on the main wall. In this case, the strip is cut from a single net roll.
Cutting a roll of fiberglass mesh
Apply a strip of adhesive mixture 10 in width along the perimeter of the opening see
Strip of adhesive mixture
Step 9. Place one of the edges of the strip of glass mesh on the applied the previous step is glue. Press the material to it, literally "drown".
The edge of the fiberglass mesh is pressed against the glue
Step 10. Apply more on top of the part of the mesh leaning against the wall one layer of glue.
Glue solution is applied on top
Step 11. Repeat the previous operations with the mesh for the other sides of the doorway ...
The same is done with the other sides
Install the foam blocks with cut edges along the perimeter of the opening.
Installation of insulation blocks
The situation with window openings is approximately similar - the block itself with a frame and glass can be installed both in the depth of the opening, and on its edge. In the first case, a gap appears between the outer layer of insulation and the window, which is closed with narrow strips of foam plastic. They are glued to the inner surfaces of the opening.
Installation of the window block "in the depth" of the opening.
You can see the gap between the frame and the insulation layer
The same window setting, but top view. Added a narrow strip of Styrofoam to the inside of the opening. It bridges the gap formed, which otherwise could become a "cold bridge"
In the second version, the window is mounted on the edge of the opening, adjoining the frame to the insulation layer on the outer wall. This method is more effective in terms of thermal insulation.
Regardless of the installation method, the foam layer on the outer walls should slightly overlap the window block in order to prevent the house from freezing through it during the cold season
Scheme of installation of a window block with adjoining to a layer of insulation
It should also be said that the joints of expanded polystyrene blocks should not coincide with the joint of the window block with an opening.
Therefore, along the perimeter, the insulation is installed in the form of products with L-shaped notches. There are two options for how to do this, and they are presented in the images below.
The process of wall insulation with foam plastic near window openings is in many ways similar to that for a doorway. Here's a step-by-step guide.
Install the window unit, move it closer to the edge of the opening and fix it well there.
Installing the window unit
Fixing the window unit
Step 2. Remove the protective film from the frame and degrease it.
Degreasing the frame
Step 3. Stick a special profile around the frame perimeter.
The profile is glued around the perimeter
Step 4. Apply a strip of adhesive 10 in width along the perimeter of the profile on the wall mm.
Step 5. On the glue applied in the previous step, fix the glass mesh strip along the same principles as for the doorway.
Fastening the glass mesh strip
Saw the blocks in accordance with the diagrams outlined in the images in this section of the article.Secure around the perimeter of the opening.
Installing insulation blocks
Important! While fixing the foam under the window opening, make a slight tilt necessary to install the ebb.
Slight slope required to set the low tide
As for the space under the roof, this is different from working with conventional walls is that it is necessary to pre-cut blocks with different and complex shapes from the foam.
Installation of units under the roof
For more For reliable connection of the insulation layer with the main wall, fixing "umbrellas" are used, also known as disc dowels.
Step 1. Determine the length of the disc dowel you need. It consists of the thickness of the insulation layer (in this case it is 200 mm), the adhesive layer (15 mm), the length of the expansion part of the dowel (60 mm) and another 20 mm of the reserve. Also, decide on which of the schemes shown in the image below, you will mount the fasteners.
Dowel fixing schemes
Unpack the disc plugs, check if the parameters of the product correspond to those you need.
Unpacking the dowels
Step 3. Prepare the drill with a hole depth stop, adjust the latter to your desired values.
Preparing the drill
Step 4. Mark the points for the disk dowels and drill holes there.
Step 5. Insert the foot of the disk dowel into the hole so that the head is on flush with the foam surface. Then use a special drill bit and screw the spacer part of the fastener, then close it with a protective cap.
The dowel foot is inserted into the hole
Screwing the spacer
In some disc dowels, the spacer is not twisted, but hammered. You can see an example of how to work with them in the images below.
In some disc dowels, the spacer is not twisted, but hammered
Blocking the spacer element
Some builders believe that disc dowels in foam insulation are "cold bridges". They fight this problem in the following way: using a special cutter, they cut a cylindrical recess in expanded polystyrene, insert fasteners there and fix it. Then the disc dowel is closed with the foam cover cut out earlier.
A cylindrical notch is cut
The dowel is closed with the previously cut foam
On the installation of expanded polystyrene blocks the process of wall insulation from the outside is not completed - the material must be protected with a reinforcing mesh and plaster mixture.
Prepare a plaster-adhesive mixture of dry powder and water. Choose the proportions based on the recipe printed on the package. Mix the mortar with a construction mixer.
Step 2. Start working with windows and doors.
On the inner surface of their openings, apply a thin layer of plaster and glue mixture and level it.
Applying a thin layer of the mixture
Leveling the layer
Step 3. Press the reinforcing mesh laid on the inner surface of the openings in one of the previous sections of the article to the glue mixture and sink in it. Smooth over everything with a rectangular trowel.
The mesh is recessed in the mixture
Exactly in the same way as in the previous operation , press the mesh belonging to the previously installed profile to the adhesive layer and drown it.
The mesh of the previously installed profile is pressed
Step 5. Repeat the previous three steps with all sides of the window opening ...
Same, but with the other sides of the opening
Step 6. Apply stripes on the corners near the openings adhesive mixture at an angle of 45 °. Then lay the reinforcing mesh on them and smooth it with a trowel. Such areas near openings are called "kerchiefs".
Smoothing the reinforcing mesh
Measure a corner profile to the desired length. Apply a layer of glue mixture along the outer perimeter of the window, then lean the profile with the mesh against it and the inner surface of the opening and smooth with a rectangular trowel.
Adhesive mixture application
Step 8. Using the same principle, install the corner profiles on other surfaces of the window opening.
The same, but on other surfaces of the window opening
Apply to the inner corners of the opening a small rectangle or square of reinforcing mesh, straighten and smooth with an adhesive mixture.
The mesh is applied to the inner corner
Smoothing the mesh with the mixture
Step 10. Repeat steps two to nine for each individual window and door opening.
Step 11. Apply glue solution around the perimeter of the house to the bottom of the insulation.
Then attach the drip profile there. Install it so that no air pockets remain between it and the insulation. Control the process with a building level.
Applying the mortar around the perimeter of the house to the lower part of the insulation
The profile is applied -droplet
Step 12. Apply another layer of plaster over the mesh of the drip profile and smooth with a rectangular trowel.
Smoothing with a rectangular trowel
Step 13. Following the same principles as described above, perform installation of the corner profile - apply an adhesive layer, attach the product to it, sink it into the mesh and smooth everything on top.
The adhesive is applied at an angle
The profile is applied
The mesh is smoothed
Step 14. Now proceed to reinforce the entire surface of the walls. Cut lengths from the roll with a net to match the height of the insulated walls of the house.
Cutting the reinforcing mesh
Step 15. On top of the expanded polystyrene, apply a layer of plaster-adhesive mixture and smooth with a toothed ironer.
Applying a plaster-adhesive mixture over foam plastic
Step 16. Lay a reinforcing mesh on top of the adhesive layer , press it down and brush on top with another layer of mortar. Smooth everything thoroughly - irregularities and cavities with air are unacceptable.
Laying the reinforcing mesh
The mesh is smoothed with mortar
Step 17. In the same way, lay the next section of the mesh side by side. There must be at least 100 mm overlap between it and the previous one.
The overlap must be at least 100 mm
Step 18. Give the glue mixture a little (but not completely!) dry and scrape off any irregularities.
Irregularities are scraped off
Step 19. Using the rule, search for concavities on the adhesive layer applied over the insulation ... Then line them up by adding a little more mixture in the right places.
Finding concavities using the rule
Step 20. After the finally hardened adhesive mixture, make another leveling of the surface - puttying.
Facade foam plaster
The easiest way to insulate a house is to sheathe it with foam. The material is inexpensive, installation is easy to do on your own, the energy-saving effect is obvious. And in order to protect such a sheathing from the harmful effects of the environment, you need to choose a suitable coating for it.
Read more here.
After the putty hardens, the outside wall insulation with foam plastic can be considered complete.Next, you just have to apply a finishing decorative finish in accordance with your tastes and preferences.
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