Insurance on the roof of a house for a specialist - which is more reliable

Insurance on the roof of a house for a specialist - which is more reliable Insurance on the roof of the house for a specialist - which is more reliable

According to labor protection standards, the employer is obliged to provide the issuance of free special clothing to roofers, as well as to guarantee the safety of the work. In this article, we will focus on what exactly the health and human life of someone who works at height depends on, and also consider the means of collective and individual insurance on the roof of the house.

In European countries, in order to prevent accidents during roof overlap work, as well as work on the maintenance of the roof or equipment installed on it, a number of acts and norms "Labor Protection Law", "Regulation on construction sites "and" regulations on the organization of jobs ".

If we consider the law on labor protection, then it highlights the list of responsibilities of the developer, which begin immediately at the design stage of the building, and are also valid until the end of the repair work.

Safety instructions

All standards apply in conjunction with specific safety instructions issued by trade unions.

If, due to violation of such instructions, an employee is injured or dies, then the employer will be criminally liable, and a TB violation recorded on paper can entail heavy fines.

DIN 4426 is the recognized European safety standard, and it specifies requirements from union regulations. According to it, the developer is required to install devices that will prevent people from falling from a height, so that the enterprise that performs maintenance of buildings (maintenance of equipment that is on the roof, cleaning the drainage system, inspection surveys, the condition of the roof covering, etc.), and in the future you can use such protective devices and fulfill the duties of observing the safety and health of the craftsmen.

In Russia, the work of roofing masters, like any other work at height, is regulated by safety rules, and many have long become outdated.

The process of harmonization of Russian standards with European ones began in 1999, but will proceed much more slowly. The difference can be seen even in terminology - in Russia, when it comes to protective equipment, a safety belt will be meant (and no more!), But in European countries, protection against a possible fall will be approached comprehensively and the term "insurance system" is used.

European standards will rigidly define the requirements of a technical nature and clearly prescribe the compatibility of working conditions and kits that are intended for certain works. It is believed that insurance systems should include the required minimum, and the number and nomenclature of additional elements depend on specific conditions - on the height, types of work performed, and also on the desires of consumers.

Details

The concept of "belay system"

The belay system is a complex of protective equipment, aimed at preserving human health and life during a fall.

The belay system consists of:

  • Anchoring points.
  • Connection element (loop and carabiner).
  • Shock absorption system (shock absorber).
  • Intermediate types of connections (fall arrestor and lanyard).
  • Full body harness with hip and shoulder straps (this is the so-called harness).

If at least one of the system elements is missing, then it will not be possible to provide the required level of security.

Anchoring points

There is another type of insurance for roof work. Anchor devices include all rigid connections with a building or construction-type structures. These are roof lugs, hooks, roller-type devices on ropes or rails, bolts for fastening in concrete structures, tensioned ropes, rails along which the carabiner will move. There are limitations that are dictated by common sense - for example, you cannot attach a cable for insurance to water and gas supply pipes, to metal structures that have traces of rust, and so on.

It should be remembered that if, when a person falls off the roof, the anchor-type points cannot withstand the jerk, and even the most modern belay harness will be ineffective.

Anchor points are currently not certified in Russia. In Europe, the standard will be subdivided into stationary and portable items. Attachment points can be of two types - rigid and certified (structural element).

So, among the certified mounts we can distinguish:

  • Insurance on the roof of a house for a specialist - which is more reliable Fixed points for fasteners (EN 795-A).

  • Portable attachment points (EN 795-B).
  • Rail horizontal systems (EN 795-D).
  • Rail vertical systems (EN 353-1).
  • Heavy portable attachment points (EN 795-E).
  • Steel horizontal anchor lines (EN 795-C).

Certified type devices will serve for attaching anchor loops to a channel, pipe, dormer window or other irregular structure, to which it will not be possible to attach with a carabiner. During the erection phase of the building, builders are usually "attached" to the mounting panel hinges, but when the work is done on the finished house, it is difficult to find a suitable anchor point. In this case, bolts are used, which are screwed into the load-bearing wall, or steel plates, which are attached to an already existing steel structure.

Connection elements (carabiners)

Connection elements and carabiners are made of steel or aluminum and are required for two different purposes:

  • Aluminum carabiners are used on harnesses (restraints and harnesses), ends of belay lines or as temporary points.Their low weight makes it easy to move, and the material will provide an optimal strength to weight ratio.

  • Steel carabiners are much heavier than their aluminum counterparts, and they are also much better adapted to more difficult conditions, and such carabiners, as well as connecting elements, are mainly used for fixed points or for connecting to metal structures ...

Carabiners with a screw-type coupling are the safest, despite the fact that they are recommended to be used only in a limited number of disconnections and connections per day (from 2 to 3 times). To ensure maximum efficiency, a large number of carabiners are equipped with a locking system that prevents accidental opening.

Lanyards for belay

A means such as belay lines help to ensure maximum safety, while also not interfering with work. There are two types of slings:

  1. Safety equipment for holding and positioning in the workplace - needed to prevent the worker from falling into the place of possible fall and for positioning in the workplace.
  2. Shock absorbers - to limit the shock load on the user in the event of a breakdown.

A bursting shock absorber is a loop of a strong polyamide tape, stitched in certain places with a "light" seam. The last seam is usually the strongest.

When falling, such seams begin to break in turn, softening the load on the human body. The line of the shock absorber band is 1.75 meters. There is another type of shock absorber - an inertial blocking device that slows down the fall under the influence of centrifugal force. Cotter pins are installed inside the device, and on top of them there is a toothed surface that acts as a brake.

There are other options for securing a roofer, for example, a flexible anchor line with a slider type device. Such a line is a rope along which the slider will move freely, and its main purpose is facade work, as well as other types of work on a vertical type surface. Under the influence of gravity, the cable will be pinched by the locking device. When working on sloping places, the device can be switched to manual mode, and the lever will move as needed, and the roofer can move to another section of the roof covering.

There are also rail systems in which a rail is placed on the roof, and a slider moves along it.

Often, a large rail system with transitional nodes is obtained, and it can also be installed on stairs and pipes. For Russia, this is still an innovation, and there are not as many implemented projects as we would like, although they make it possible to guarantee the safety of workers in a simpler, more reliable and cheaper way. Sheremetyevo airport has a vertical rail system, and its horizontal version was designed during the construction of the Ramstore in Moscow.

Safety harness as a "crown" of belt evolution

Insurance on the roof of a house for a specialist - which is more reliable And what's wrong protection belt, which is still recommended according to Russian GOST? The attachment points for the belay lines are located in the lumbar region, and this does not exclude the possibility of "falling out" from the belts. Moreover, the maximum point in terms of the force of the jerk falls on the vertebral region, which in the worst case scenario is fraught with paralysis of the lower extremities.

The use of a modern harness for insurance excludes even such risks.

In a likely fall, the head will remain up and the feet will be down, making a rollover unlikely. In this case, the load will be evenly distributed over the straps, and the attachment point will be higher than the waist line, and therefore the main blow will not be on the spine, but on the calves, which are much easier to tolerate strong squeezing.

The harness is ergonomic, can provide comfort in use and can withstand a maximum operating weight of 135 kg. Despite such huge shortcomings of the belt for protection and the availability of an excellent alternative, the old GOST, which allows the use of this device, has not yet been canceled! Its cancellation will be possible only if each element specified in it corresponds to a product that is certified according to European standards.

Ensuring the safety of work on sloped and flat roofs

Work on the roof can be divided into main groups, and there are only three of them:

  1. Work on a flat roof more than 2 meters from the edge.
  2. Less than 2 meters to the edge of a flat roof.
  3. On a sloping roof.

Working on a flat roof does not require the use of a belay system, in most cases only a rope and a belt will be enough. The main task will be to prevent a person from getting into dangerous areas for the roof.

At a distance of 2 meters and closer from unenclosed roofing drops, and even when working on a sloped roof, the employee must (according to European standards) apply a complete insurance system, because in this case there will be a real risk of falling. This includes body protection and a safety rope with a break or blocking shock absorber, as well as a carabiner or other fixing device (for example, the same loop) that will be attached to the anchor point on the roof.

Fences

We have already examined the ropes for belaying on the roof, and now the fence is next. Its main function is to prevent the person who fell from the roof from falling. European manufacturers have developed a wide range of flat-type roof fences that can be installed on any kind of cover without disturbing the waterproofing.

The railing can be installed on a roof with a small format covering, and even on a folded roof. But regulations will regulate the height of steel roof railing in different ways, and this sometimes causes problems for designers.In the role of temporary measures during construction work, it is permissible to install special protective portable fences that will prevent workers from falling.

They must also stand at least 2 meters from the roof edge. Fences made in Germany are not installed perpendicular to the horizon, as is usually the case in Russia, but perpendicular to the roof covering.

This option will be characterized by the maximum interception area at the minimum heights of the fence itself. In accordance with DIN EN 13374 (safety class A is available), and such a structure must be able to support the weight of a person who has leaned against it or fell on the mountings.

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