Own home is an old and quivering dream of so many. Unfortunately, not everyone can afford such happiness. The very tangible construction costs are a barrier to many potential homeowners. The construction of a frame house can become a kind of lifesaver. There are many different rumors about such residential buildings, not all of which are true.
One of these is that a dwelling built using frame technology is very, very short-lived. Is it so? Let's try to figure it out.
The main feature, which is at the same time an advantage of such a house, is the rather short period of its construction. In total, there are several types of frame construction.
The most famous among them are based on Canadian, German and Finnish technology.
There are also American frame houses.
For the manufacture of the frame, wooden beams are used. External and internal cladding is carried out with chipboards or a special type of plywood. The resulting frame voids are filled with various types of insulation: expanded polystyrene, glass wool and others.
Thanks to this, the home is environmentally friendly and warm enough.
To speed up the construction of houses using this technology, they began to use special factory-made sandwich panels, the insulation in which is laid by the manufacturer at the factory.
Finnish and German
In them, for the construction of a structure, special ones are used, prepared in advance, panels.
The basis of the house, as in the previous case, will be a wooden frame. Increased attention is paid to the vapor barrier of the entire structure of the future structure.
Recently, active experiments have been carried out with the use of unusual, previously unused materials for building a frame - monolithic reinforced concrete, high-quality metal, special shields.
Wooden beams serve as the basis for the frame of these structures, representing the rigid skeleton of the entire structure. Then it is sheathed outside and inside with various building materials. Usually, boards are used either oriented strand or chipboard.
They insulate the dwelling with special heat-insulating materials, the thermal insulation of the house depends on their thickness and walls. Dense basalt insulation proved to be the best among them.
Their significant difference from the equally popular cotton wool is that they are able to keep their shape well. Mineral wool, after a certain period of time, begins to creep down, from which extremely undesirable cold bridges are formed.
Due to the peculiarities of the construction technology, frame houses are distinguished by a relatively low weight, which is why they are often equipped with a columnar foundation.But many homeowners prefer what they believe to be the more reliable tape base. The main material used in construction is wood.
However, do not worry about its high flammability. All materials intended for this type of construction are treated with a fire retardant, which ensures their resistance to fire. Regarding the service life and longevity of timber framed houses.
Manufacturers promise them approximately (give or take) from fifty to one hundred years.
It should be noted that half-timbered houses, which are one of the varieties of frame houses, have been in operation for more than two hundred years, and still regularly serve the owners.
Therefore, we can draw an analogy and assume that the frame house will regularly serve not only the period guaranteed by the manufacturers, but also much longer.
The main basis of such products is a frame made of a special material - a thermoprofile. What qualities does he possess? First of all, the highest fire resistance. In addition, it has excellent corrosion resistance and is not afraid of fungal infections.
If we compare the resistance to fire of buildings made of metal thermal profiles and a frame made of wood, then the latter will be able to hold out longer against a strong increase in t during fire.
A structure of metal profiles, most likely, will simply collapse from a furious flame and high temperatures.
Sheathing of such buildings is carried out with the same materials as wood-frame ones. True, recently consumers have begun to take an active interest in and use, as cladding, magnesia glass sheets. How long do experts take to operate a house built using this technology? On average, a structure with metal elements has served for more than a century, and this sounds serious, you must agree.
The technology of construction of modular-frame houses is very similar to that of the previous ones.
The main difference is that the module is entirely manufactured at the factory, and is a spatial-volumetric, already practically finished room.
Its area is usually thirty squares. The basis of such a module is a frame made of metal, wood or mixed materials. The service life of such a dwelling is also about a hundred years.
The individual panels that make up the frame-panel structures are assembled at profile factories.
The frame is most often made of wood and hidden inside the shield. Insulation is also placed there. The board is sheathed with oriented strand board or chipboard. Each such panel is a part of the wall of the future house. Already at the factory, in the manufacture of panels, they are equipped with openings for doors and windows.
For ease of operation and subsequent assembly, all panels are numbered at the factory.Together with them, the consumer is also handed a detailed instruction, which describes the procedure for performing the work. It is almost impossible to mix up the panels and put one instead of the other. Thanks to the use of innovative technologies, it takes only a few days to build a house from such panels.
However, the panels are rather large and heavy, and moving them from place to place is quite problematic even for a team of builders.
You will most likely need to rent a crane.
The service life of the houses built using this technology is approximately sixty years.
The basis of the technology of such a structure is a frame made of reinforced concrete monolith. A foundation is being established, from which solid columns go up. It is they who hold the weight of the house and interfloor floors.
The walls in such houses are erected from warm light materials.
They can be aerated concrete or foam concrete blocks. In some cases, a metal frame is mounted between the supporting columns, which is filled inside with basalt insulation, and then sheathed with oriented strand, chipboard or glass-magnesite sheets.
Exterior walls are warm and smooth. But in terms of their thermal qualities, structures made of a reinforced concrete frame, having walls made of foam concrete or aerated concrete, are noticeably inferior to the products manufactured using all the technologies described above.
However, the durability of such a house is, on average, one hundred and twenty years. If you follow and care for it, regularly carry out the necessary restoration and repair work, then the service life of such a dwelling can be easily increased to about one hundred and fifty.
As already mentioned, half-timbered houses have served the owners for more than two hundred years and still continue to do so. Therefore, we can state with full responsibility that the owners are quite capable of significantly extending the life of their own house, made using one of the frame technology methods.
It can be increased to such an extent that the dwelling will last two to three times longer than the period given to it by the manufacturer.
One of such extension factors is a competent and accurate calculation of the foundation, that is, the foundation. It is best to consult with professionals and construction experts before the very beginning of all installation work.
It is imperative to take into account all the features of the soil, as well as the planned weight of the future structure. Only experienced specialists are able to accurately calculate which foundation will withstand the weight in a particular case, and which type of foundation should be preferred. When building a timber frame house, it is advisable to use larch.
Its wood is more durable and less susceptible to decay processes than others.
Particular attention should be paid during construction to the moisture content of the material used: if the wood is not sufficiently dried, then it can start rot, which will lead to damage to the entire frame and, consequently, reduce the service life. It is imperative to use special antiseptic agents for processing wood building materials.
At each subsequent stage of construction, it is necessary to monitor the levels of the frame, check the corners and nodes, watch that there are no distortions. Otherwise, one fine day, the building may turn out like a house of cards.
Much also depends on the quality of the waterproofing work.
Waste moisture can cause rotting, mold and fungal diseases in wood. In addition, its excess can cause deterioration of the insulation. Soaked glass wool, for example, loses more than half of its qualities after getting wet. It is advisable to equip the building with a well-functioning ventilation system, which will reduce the humidity of the premises, and also provide them with a more comfortable microclimate.
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