Before proceeding with the construction of a roof with your own hands, it is necessary to carry out careful calculations, draw up a construction scheme, consult with specialists ...
The roof of a house is one of the most important elements of housing. It protects from bad weather, keeps heat, and if you decide to make an attic, then you can live comfortably in such an attic.
Let's figure out, first, what types of roofs exist:
Flat roof is the lightest and cheapest at construction, it does not require the construction of a complex frame made of wood, it is produced in the shortest possible time. On a flat roof you can relax in the summer, build a garden, put up an inflatable pool, breed birds.
However, pitched roofs have a number of significant disadvantages.
They need constant care: in winter, sweep away the snow, make sure that a lot of water does not accumulate on the roof in order to avoid moisture penetration into the house. A lean-to roof is being erected at a slope of 2-3 degrees .
The erection of a pitched or gable roof is a more complicated process, but the most common one, since such a roof has a number of significant advantages:
To build a mansard roof with your own hands, you need some experience. This is a complex process, and more expensive compared to the types of roofs described above.
The mansard roof can be half-hip (gable) or hip (hip). Such a roof gives the house a unique look, it is possible to install windows and balconies.
If the house has a complex layout, then combined roofs are ideal for this option. Combined roofs are erected in stages: above the terrace - a flat roof, above the bedroom - a gable roof, a single-pitched ledge above the hall with a hip and so on.
There is a separate type of conical roofs for round houses.
This method is less common due to the complexity of manufacture and construction.
Despite the wide variety of types, the construction of any roof is based on the same principles.
First of all, make a careful calculation, take into account the climate and weather conditions in which the house is located, the weight of the roof itself and its load on the house , weight of roofing materials, wind strength in the region, amount of winter precipitation.
The slope of the roof should be at least 20 degrees, but not more than 3-4 degrees.
This is done immediately after building the walls of the house. A concrete blind area is laid around the entire perimeter of the house. When the cement dries, the concrete slabs are covered with roofing felt or other waterproofing material, and a Mauerlat is installed - wooden beams measuring 15x15 cm . The main task of the Mauerlat is to evenly distribute the loads on the foundation of the house and walls. To fix the Mauerlat, metal studs are used when pouring the blind area or forged wire is embedded.
In the case of a gable or gable roof, the Mauerlat is installed on two walls, where the legs of the rafters will rest, if the roof is hipped, then around the entire perimeter of the house. In this case, wooden beams are fastened with carpentry fasteners, by cutting one beam into another to a depth of 50 cm.
For some cases, when it is required to erect a roof of a wooden house or a frame house, instead of Mauelrat, an upper wall beam is used.
So it is easier to adjust the bars in accordance with the given dimensions, cut out grooves where necessary, drill holes. Further, according to the details, you can lift the rafters up and install on the roof.
The most convenient size of beams for rafters is 7x15 cm. run. The outreach of the rafters beyond the perimeter of the building is usually 40 cm.
This is done so that when it rains, the water flows away from the walls. The rafter's leg should rest against the Mauelrat using a pre-prepared recess.
For better strength of the roof, the rafters are fastened with nails to beams, called crossbars, the size of which is usually 5x15 cm
For solid lathing, boards 25 cm thick, 2 m long are used.If you have chosen slate, metal tiles or any other soft material as a roofing material when erecting a roof, then a continuous lathing is needed here. Sheathing boards are fastened only on supports, the work progress is carried out from top to bottom. In the case of a sparse sheathing, the beams are packed onto the rafters at a certain distance, which depends on the roofing material.
Roof erection services are provided by various construction companies, but, despite all the complexity, to build a roof for baths, for example, you can do it yourself. The technology for erecting a mansard roof is much more complicated, it is presented in the video
The cost of building a roof largely depends on the area and purpose of the object, the choice of materials, labor costs, if any.
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